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[Solved] the door by miroslav holub analysis

The poem “The Door” reveals to us that change in self involves taking chances and the positive consequences of change. Miroslav expresses change as an individual’s commitment to embrace new opportunities presented to them, leading to a new perspective of life. The door, being the central metaphor of the poem, represents a barrier, which holds us back from initiating alter. It is a gateway to new opportunities if the individual decides to take the initiative.

The poet uses repetition of the phrase “go and open the door” as the opening line of each stanza to create an emphatic tone that appeals the reader to take a chance, to leave their comfort zone and take on the outside world. The italic word “maybe” shows the hesitation and unpredictability of the consequences after the person had gone and opened the door. “A tree, or a wood, a garden, or a magic city”, these images open our minds to change and start to make us think to ourselves about what is really out there in this “magic city” of ours.

This process continues even to the unpleasant sight of “a dog’s rummaging” in search and curiosity through the fixed gaze of “an eye” to “the picture, of a picture” where one learns more about themselves and gains a new perception, which in essence results in a change in self. Up until this section of the poem, Holub expresses only the positive aspects of change. In the following stanzas, the poet employs a great deal of symbolism to suggest that there may be initial difficulties that one may encounter. If there’s a fog” it’s like an indication that there is something bad about to occur. “Even if nothing is there” in these section it encourages us to take chances in spite of uncertain piece. “At least there’ll be a draught” these stanza states that whatever may happen in our lives no matter how difficult it can be there will always be some hope and joy a waits us.

[Solved] the dust bowl of the 1930s

The decade that became known as the “Dirty Thirties” was literally quite what its name implied-dirty! During the period of 1930-1940, located in the heart of the Great Plains of the United States, was a series of massive dust storms and long-term drought. Another well-earned nickname this region was known for was the Dust Bowl. The Great Depression occurred at this time as well and added to the suffering placed upon the many poor farmers of the Southwest region. What could have caused one of the worst and longest droughts in recent U. S. history?

Unfortunately, decades of human influence from bad farming practices, loss of soil moisture, and depletion of vegetation helped create wind-blown erosion that shaped the massive dust storms and severe droughts. Other natural causes were unusual weather patterns: warmer Atlantic and colder Pacific sea-surface temperatures, feedback mechanisms from dry air, and a strong jet stream confined to the north of a continental high pressure system that left little chance for rainfall. Many of the residents of the Great Plains during the Dust Bowl were poor farmers reliant on agriculture to sustain their income and family’s well being.

An usually wet season before the 1930s brought many farmers to the central U. S. to cultivate and settle the area. Unfortunately, the climate and soil conditions changed drastically after the start of the 1930s. Once it began, the severe drought, dry soil, and dust storms made planting crops almost impossible. Farmers with livelihood’s lost and future looking bleak packed up their families to look for better prospects elsewhere. Hundreds of thousands of these individuals started a great migration to places farther west like California. They became known as “Oakies” because many traveled from Oklahoma in their familiar dust-covered trucks.

The novel, “The Grapes of Wrath”, describes the story of a Dust Bowl sharecropping family traveling to California after experiencing hardship from drought coupled with the effects of the Great Depression. Furthermore, its fictional account was in fact very similar to how the real-life farmers and their families were affected. The migration routes and the region at the heart of the Dust Bowl can be seen in Figure 1. However, one positive outcome was that Great Plains farmers, government officials, and scientists learned to develop better farming techniques and practice soil conservation or a sustainable future. Undoubtedly, the decade of the 1930s was one of the greatest disasters in American history attributable to meteorological causes. It became the standard for describing drought. Four specific drought events took place during 1930–1931, 1934, 1936, and 1939–1940. The drought periods that helped produce the creation of the widespread dust storms were characterized by several factors. A mild, moist winter with a shift to dry conditions in mid-April around the central U. S. preceded the start to the beginning of the Dust Bowl.

In addition, another preceding event was rain deficiency in the fall of 1929 on the California coast. Severe dust storms and drought was felt in Oregon, California, Washington even before the Great Plains did. Winds carried the dry air from the interior to the Southwest (Tannehill 1947). Heavy rains that fell in the Great Plains before the 1930s was a short-lived, deceptive event while a national decade long rain deficit occurred in surrounding regions. During 1934, over 80% of the U. S. experienced moderate drought. (Rosenberg, 1978). For example, in Goodwell Oklahoma, they had a nine inch rainfall deficit in 1932 and 1933.

Over the 11 year span from 1930-1940, a large part of the region saw 15% to 25% less precipitation than normal (Hurt 1981, 29). Referring to Figure 2, we can see that specifically the Missouri basin region experienced drought at close to 95% around the time of 1935 to 1940. Figure 2: Percentage of Area in Missouri Basin that experienced severe Drought. Jan. 1895-Mar. 2004. Source:http://www. drought. unl. edu/whatis/palmer/missouri. gif Figure 1: This drought Index details the areas across the United States that were the hardest hit in the 1930s during the Dust Bowl and migration routes.

Source: http://www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/USAdustM. JPG Heat waves were extreme during that time and were caused by the dry land that had no moisture to cool down the high heat. Record setting high temperatures occurred in 1934 (Rauber et al. 2002). Tannehill explains: “… the heat and dryness of the air are caused not only by absence of cloudiness and failure of rain but also to a large extent by air from other than the normal sources” (Tannehill 1947). To add to the problem, plagues of insects that excelled in the dry environment ate the little crops that did grow (Tannehill 1947). It was so heavy and thick. It wasn’t like sand. It was just real heavy, like face powder. Only it was real dark, almost black” (Glover n. d. WGBH American Experience. Surviving the Dust Bowl). Here Glover, a witness of the Dust Bowl, describes what must have been a terrifying event.

As we can see in Image 1, her description is quite similar to the photo that shows a massive, dark dust cloud moving across Colorado. Image 1: A cloud of thick dust, hundreds of feet high moves over farms in Colorado. Source:http://www. weru. ksu. edu/new_weru/multimedia/dustbowl/big/usda18. pg. The atmospheric conditions that lead up to the Dust Bowl of the 1930s were factors that prolonged the life of the severe droughts, strengthened the heat waves, and amassed the massive, unrelenting dust clouds. The Great Plains is known as a transition zone between the humid east and the arid southwest where dust can be blown with gale force, 50 + mph winds from the interior to the Southwest. This dry zone, deplete of moisture in the air and subsoil, helped the series of droughts to “feed upon itself” through feedback mechanisms ( Rauber et al. 2002).

As a result of the lack of water vapor, there was a reduction of evaporation levels so the cooling effect was reduced. Once the opportunity for cooling is reduced, the heat wave is strengthened by radiational heating (energy as electromagnetic waves radiated by the high temperature of the surrounding area) that is increased from the lack of clouds to reflect the sun’s rays (Rauber et al. 2002). Furthermore, a strong high pressure system above (700mb) the Central Plains with a jetstream farther north than its normal position stays stationary as it continues to “feed upon itself”.

The system is usually located more south in normal seasons with a more weakened low-level system that brings summer thunderstorms and precipitation. Rainfall amounts, as earlier mentioned, before the beginning of the droughts were abnormal because of the irregular sea surface temperatures of the Atlantic and Pacific in addition to a departure from the normal weather pattern. This can be explained by the unique connection between the atmosphere and land surface conditions that can help prolong the drought conditions and lower precipitation levels (Schubert et al. 2004).

Another atmospheric condition that created the “Dirty Thirties” was the strong heating near surface air that caused clear skies, along with humid conditions, that left little chance for precipitation to form in drought regions (Rauber et al. 2002). During the dust bowl, the atmospheric conditions helped reinforce the drought circulation patterns allowing for fine soil to be eroded and carried by the strong, continental winds. Figure 3 shows the Palmer Drought Index for July 1934 and its long-term hydrological conditions. In the Great Plains it was below -4, which equals an extreme drought.

This index measures moisture deficiency that is standardized to local climate conditions. It can follow drought periods because it is cumulative to a time periods precipitation amount and temperature’s prior value to the previous indexes. It is a “relative measure” compared to surrounding regions (Rauber et al. 2002). Figure 3: The PDSI for July 1934 of the hydrological conditions of the U. S. Source: http://weather. about. com/od/imagegallery/ig/Global-Warming-Images-Graphs. –5K/Palmer-Index-US-Dust-Bowl-Map. htm Furthermore, a third high pressure ridge developed aloft over the interior of the U.

S with a jetstream that moved further north into Canada. It became confined to the cloudless region north of the continental high pressure with the continued warming of the hot, dry region of dense air that expanded and “clinged” near the surface, reinforced the feedback mechanisms, and blocked the influx of low-level rain from the Gulf (Rauber et al. 2002). Although the end of the Dust Bowl was not clearly identifiable, the return of the rains in a series of 1940 downpours from low pressure systems are considered an indication.

The unusual currents of the flow of the jet stream and SSTs returned to normal (Hurt, 1978). In conclusion, 1941 was the wettest year in the period from 1886 to 1944, which helped mark the end of the droughts and Dust Bowl (Tannehill, 1947). Clearly, the Dust Bowl period was aggravated by human action-it proves we can affect weather through our interaction with nature. Farmers and the government alike seemed to realize this after the end of the “Dirty Thirties”. Soil conservation and changes in farming techniques appeared after 1930s (Rosenberg 1978, 125).

Great Plains farmers implemented terrace, contour, and strip farming. These methods prevented soil erosion while also capturing more moisture that prevented extreme droughts and dust storms from reoccurring. Newly formed laws for soil conservation urged farming districts to unite to combat soil erosion and the misuse of land (Hurt 1981, 74). The severe drought periods caused massive resettlement patterns in the Central Plains and produced lasting effects on the water tables of that region. In addition, the widespread use of vital irrigation in growing crops in agricultural areas was seen after the Dust Bowl ended.

Droughts kill more people every year than any other weather phenomena (Rauber et al. 2002). That is why studying the Dust Bowl and its causes is important to understanding how to prevent similar severe weather events. The dust storms that caused such extreme hardships on the people of the Great Plains did create positive discussions on how to respect our environment and learn to practice sustainable, responsible land use. It also showed the amazing resilience of the American plains farmer who not only survived the Great Depression but the “Black Blizzards” that turned day into night as well.

We must always be cautious for our future as the interconnection between human interaction (greenhouse gases, water depletion, etc. ) and our susceptible atmosphere can perhaps lead to similar, even longer, droughts. Currently, global warming accelerates the drying of the Southwest region of the U. S, in addition with widespread lowering of the water table by irrigation reliant agricultural regions. (Rauber et al. 2002). It makes one wonder if in our lifetime we could we see a “Dust Bowl of the 21st century”?

[Solved] the distinction of michel foucaults concept of power

The Distinction of Michel Foucault’s Concept of Power “The most defenseless tenderness and the bloodiest of powers have a similar need of confession.

Western man has become                           a confessing animal.”-Michel Foucault, (1978)       History of Sexuality: IntroductionProbably the well-conceived reality in our current social structure is the concept of power. Particularly, Michel Foucault presented his own version for the concept of power and defied the conventional views on it that has long been accepted by society. His views on power particularly talks about his own ideas of discourse.

Foucault mainly revolves on the concept that power is a product of discourse. His concept can be utilized in order for us to understand the relations that involve power that is evident in society. Power, as it was presented by Foucault, is proven to be evident all throughout the current prevailing social structure and at the same time not being assured of power constantly present in all situations.The Powerful TruthSuch principles that were discussed by Foucault become hegemonic primarily because of the reason that the discourses presented by Foucault are being supported, and in turn accepted as a fact.

This generally accepted truth in turn is taken from the obtained knowledge that an individual has and was influenced by society. What Foucault particularly suggested, is that knowledge and power are openly connected to each other.  According to Foucault, “power produces knowledge, that power and knowledge directly imply one another”, the statement implies the relationship of interdependence of the concept of power with that of knowledge and that not one of the two will exist without the other. Under this principle, an individual acquires knowledge which in turn obtains power.

Truth then in this case, is a form of power in itself.  As Foucault wrote it, “We are subjected to the production of truth through power and we cannot exercise power except through the production of truth”. As the statement suggests, power is viewed as an offshoot of the truth which in turn was derived from the knowledge obtained from society. As it is, the particular components of society that influence the knowledge that is being obtained by individuals, the manner of its utilization, will then be a major concern as to what the truth really is.

  This will then be a platform for the certain groups to grab hold on a specific type of power within the limits of society.Power and the Structure of a Static SocietyFoucault indicated in his works that power is not confined to certain groups within society but is scattered all throughout the components that compose our society. He furthered that the concept of power is constantly changing and predicting it would be a near impossible feat. This also created the idea of a temporary power structure in our society whose direction could not be determined.

Under Foucault’s structure, power is not by any means static but somewhat exact to the specific society in a given timeframe. Such a concept could also only be comprehended under this circumstance. In order to be able to appreciate how the power structure works in a society under a specific timeframe, it is important that one must appreciate first the methods of applying power within a certain society. Though there are various structures of power, each with own unique aspects, such forms under certain institutions utilize similar processes of practicing power in itself.

An example of this is gender and the gender roles that go well with it. One of which is the use of the principle of observation to replace the concept of brutality in controlling society. The utilization of power in this case may be viewed as standard procedure of initiating a procedure. In the end, power will be considered as a form of control.

  Foucault particularly emphasized that power is with the people and not with just a group through the social capabilities of individuals. This particular theory defies the conventional view on the role of the state in society.  He further disagrees that a central power or authority put forth from centralized control structures is not the actual influence within a society. It could then be safe to assume that power is interdependent with one another and that the functions of an individual precede the first one who acted on it.

Resistance and Power ConflictsMichel Foucault’s idea that power is scattered and temporary occurs between temporary groups over impermanent issues. These results to a situation wherein everytime power or authority is exercised, resistance is likely to occur. In the creation of a significant knowledge about a hegemonic discussion, a new definition of truth can be obtained once resistance takes place. This confrontation in turn would be efficient when done alongside with an application of power than attacking the general will in order for it to be successful.

Once acknowledged, this particularly fresh set of facts might then become the norms that could by then draw a new resistance. This way, discourse, power, and truth will be considered as flexible ideas wherein they were never static yet constantly open for resistance. Albeit, Foucault focuses little on Marx’s concept of classes whereas he sees that power is distributed as compared to Marxism’s central party. This specific theory calls for unrestricted and sudden effects to power struggles basically because Michel Foucault does not restrict his views to a small group of interests that dictates conflict.

  His views which are based on years of observations, permits clash to take place on anything.  This may even the thought of broad group interests appears to be neglected. We as individuals then are left with a bit of power slightly than authority as components in fixed groups.Revolution and Social ChangeFoucault further questions the function of revolution in providing the changes in society.

Additionally, revolution in Foucault’s discourse is unimportant for making major social changes and is just considered as alternatives.  Improvements for Foucault are the result of the variety of diminutive and chiefly domestic conflicts that sums up to the total changes to be done in society. Such a concept thereby changes society’s perception of revolutions. In other words, we then go back to his point that there is no static power in society, so there is a modest range for a revolution.

 Changes within society are the product of an endless array of undersized and separated differences within his scheme of flexible relations.  Since a central power does not exist with Foucault’s theory, small clashes can add up to an effect similar to a revolution. The thing he seems to point out is the thought that the prerequisite for a revolution is associated to the idea of considering politics as a system of a centralized system of power relations.  Without sovereign authority, revolutions will further be no longer seen to be an important component of the change that takes place in the world.

Foucault’s theory provides the choice of whether revolution becomes one or just a tool for further social change instead of anything that society occasionally subjects itself to, at the same time being primarily outside of society’s limits.;Question on the Nation StateThe state or government has particular significance to Foucault’s thoughts on power. Authority is then dispersed between the domestic and global levels, which in turn brings into difficulty the capability of the nation state. Power is thus disseminated, and the nation state might be considered to be either inappropriate, or a national coordinating arrangement for local influence relations, and a regional coordinating organization for the global economic system (“An Analysis and Comparison of Michel Foucault’s and Marx’s Theory of Power Relations.

“).Foucault’s thoughts are considered so as to analyze the purpose of the nation state.  This particular thought that power could not be established in our society, such as a sovereign government, but is found at the domestic and international levels, implicates that from this viewpoint the nation state could be seen to be a managing structure for local and global supremacy, or overtly insignificant in certain power relations. Support power relations by then solely on economic relations are just to abridge the power relations within society, and bound power to the state mechanism that would act chiefly in the overall wellbeing of the economy.

In Foucault’s notion of power, there are no stationary or eternal power structures such as social classes. Foucault’s outlook on a barrage of apparently unassociated difference emerges to underestimate such a concept.  If society then is composed of continually uneven political climate and power, then it is difficult to decipher how a society could sufficiently arrange for future growth. Furthermore, not only is state power dependent on local components to function, it also is exaggerated by variations of global power.

Such thoughts straightforwardly affect the capability of the nation state, since the real power is at the domestic and international points, then the position of the nation state is efficiently underestimated.  In this logic then, the nation state could be viewed to be a bit more than a managing entity for local and global authorities.Additionally, political affairs and the use of power within the government is usually seen to be focused about the national political components.  On the current structure, the people are often perceived as the sole provider of power in government structures, just like the case of Prime Ministers yet Foucault discards this outlook.

  He further disputes that, “power is not something that is acquired, seized, or shared, something that one holds on to or allows to slip away”.  The rationale for this is because those who are seen to obtain authority are only viewed since others are arranged to proceed in behaviors that binds the person with authority.  To Foucault, this leaves us with just the mere delusion of power (“An Analysis and Comparison of Michel Foucault’s and Marx’s Theory of Power Relations.”).

Foucault is saying that the structure which we use in deciphering the concept of power, as dispersed and seized throughout society, the particular structure of sovereign power is essentially defective.  This thereby creates the delusion that authority is contained and implemented by the society and masses that represent the state. Foucault is right in this but the entire proclamation of the nation state is gravely doubtful.  It could jeopardize the nation state as being at most a coordinating body, or at worst being made insignificant in power relations in an ever more globalized society and economy.

  If only an organizing entity, then its position could be to permit or help out in the regulating of replies of local control or organizations, which generates the manifestation of centralized government.  This comes with a medium or manager of the global authorities within the nation state such that, if immaterial, then a culture could function without it, with authority being alienated between the local and international levels, with no need of a superseding or coordinating configuration.  Maybe then, either of these potentials for the nation state becomes more evident when the rising globalization rate of the society today is taken into consideration.;”An Analysis and Comparison of Michel Foucault’s and Marx’s Theory of Power Relations.

”  2006. December 20 2006. ;http://members.ozemail.com.au/~johnthorpe64/Power.html;.;;

[Solved] the difference between northern and southern italy essay

Italy 1 The Differences between Northern and Southern Italy Nicole L. Ault Cultural Anthropology Jonathan Sharpe 04-26-2010 Italy 2 There are major differences in culture between northern and southern Italy. These are demonstrated in myriad ways including food, intelligence, fitness/health, architecture. This paper will attempt to demonstrate the differences in culture in Italy. When you think of Italy what do you think of? I think of the warm weather, white sandy beaches, different sites, food, clothing, wine, styles of architecture and so much more.

I didn’t really think of it as two separate cultures. I never knew there was a difference between Northern and Southern Italy. In reality there is, and it’s not just a subtle difference. There are a lot of major differences. When you think of Southern Italy, close your eyes, put yourself back in medieval times. This is the time when the Kings, Queens, and Knights ruled the land. “Under the Normans, the South of Italy became the most powerful medieval Italian realm. Referred to by chronicles simply as “Lo Regno”. The Kingdom. Regalisis is the Latin word for “regal”.

Royal or Kinglike. (Regalis, “History, heraldry, royalty, nobility, biography”, 04/2010. ) Back in those times Southern Italy was known for their royalty. This day and age Southern Italy is known as a place for the poor people. Southern Italy is made up of Rome and anything south of it. Molise, Apulia, Sardinia, Abruzzo, Campania, Sicily, Basilicata, and Calabria. These regions make up the lower half also known as the boot of Italy. Each of these cities is known for some kind of food or a famous chef that came from that part of the country.

Since this is known as the poor part of the country Italians dishes are put together with inexpensive indegrediants such as, peppers, olives, capers, garlic, and anchovies. Southern pastas are made with harder flours and without the use of eggs. These kinds are pastas are shaped and not rolled like the pastas from Northern Italy where they have more funds. In Southern Italy you will find more buffalo, lamb, fish, chicken, pigs, goats and sheep. They do not have very many cows due to costs. You can also find olive oil and eggplant all over southern Italy.

Rome, even though they are poor they are still Italy 3 known for their lavish oven roasted lambs, chicken, soups and pastas. Artichokes are also very popular with the Romans. They are also famous for their stuffed vegetables such as tomatoes, zucchini, and artichokes. They also use a lot of greens. Rome is also known for frying everything. I wonder how they can fry everything but they are not known like America for obesity. Campania is known for their dishes that are rich in vegetables, pastas and seafood. When you hear Campania you should now think of pizza, this is one of the places that pizza came from.

If you were to visit Campania you would see tons of people in the streets. This is how they make their living. It would look like an enormous farmers market like we have here in America. Some people can spends days at a time outdoors since their living quarters can be cramped at times. Here the weather is warm and comfortable so people don’t mind spending as much time as they can outside. Sicily is called the Mediterranean island in the sun. This is located closer to North Africa and comes from Arabian and Greek influence. A main dish in Sicily consists of eggplant and several different kinds of vegetables.

Other than eggplant other main vegetables found in Sicily are tomatoes and of course pasta. Another thing that is partial to Sicily is cheese making. Ricotta is a well known cheese from Sicily made from Ewe’s milk. You will find that Sicily is also well known over any other part of Italy for their sweets, fruits and ice creams. Sicilian’s sweets and ice cream can be found everywhere. One of the most famous desserts are Cassata, which is sponge cake filled with candied fruit, ricotta and marzipan. I was turned off when I seen it had cheese in it.

I have learned though not to knock something until you try it, so I will just say it isn’t appealing to my taste. Next we have Apulia. They are known for their vast majority of wheat and vegetables such as lettuce, tomatoes, artichokes, onions, peppers, figs, olives and citrus fruits. Apulia is surrounded by the ocean so they are more abundant in ocean life such as oysters, shrimp, sea turtles, fish, crab, lobster, octopus and mussels. Although lamb is their most popular kind of meat. I have consumed lamb before and I do have to say that lamb is an acquired taste.

I know it is big in Greek and Italian cuisine. If you like Italy 4 Calzone’s, this is the place to find them. Their choice of dessert is definitely different then some of the other places in Southern Italy. Apulia’s desserts include melons, cotognata and grapes. Abruzzo and Molice are known for famous chefs and their hot spices. They are big into strong flavoring. They use a lot of peppers such as red peppers to season a lot of their dishes to give it that right strong flavor. Their main dishes include fish, pastas and lamb.

This part of the country is not just surrounded by water, but they are also surrounded by the mountains. Lat but certainly not least we have Basilicata and Calabria. Basilicata is also known for their spicy foods. They use a lot of ginger when cooking. Some foods known from Basilicata are sausage and mushrooms, potatoes and pasta and rabbit and pork. Rabbit would not be a desirable meal for me. I am not into eating thumper. Just a little humor. They also use sauces for their pastas that are rich in vegetables. Calabria is famous for their flat pizza that does not have any tomatoes on it.

They also are known for their stew that is made with tomatoes, onion, potatoes, and eggplants. Calabria also serves a breakfast made of pork. I couldn’t have pork for breakfast. Makes you wonder if you could live in some of these places with the dishes that they have to offer you. I think I would be starving. Southern Italy has many different forms of language. Italian being the most used. In Molise their official language is of Slavic or Croatian dialect. Rome, Apulia, Abruzzo, Campania, Calabria and Basilicata. Sardinia uses Italian and Sardinian for their language.

Sicily uses Latin as their first language and Greek and their second. You can see from just the Southern part of Italy language is very different. In the United States our entire countries first language is English. The main difference for us versus Southern Italy is we have accents as they have different languages all together. That would be a very confusing place to live. I would have a hard time learning so many different languages. I am sure it does come natural for people that actually live in Italy though. Italy 5 When it comes to obesity, Southern Italy is not in that category.

According to the International Journal of Obesity, “Populations living in the Mediterranean area have a low incidence of premature cardiovascular disease, which has been attributed in part to the typical eating habits. Most of the data regarding the beneficial effects of diet in Mediterranean populations are derived from the Seven Countries Study, which reported a low intake of total saturated fat and a high consumption of complex carbohydrates and fiber, with an energy intake no different from other populations with the highest risk” (National Journal of Obesity, Volume 25, Number 2, February, 2001).

Why can’t America be like that? Just following that sort of diet cuts down the chances of heart attacks, high cholesterol, diabetes and heart disease. Mortality rates are about the same for any country, but in Southern Italy there mortality rates are not for obesity, they have other reasons. When it comes to Industrial growth in Southern Italy, there is not much. The Southern part of Italy has never been an important industrial region. It is isolated from the rest of Europe by poor transport links. They have very few natural resources, little money and limited skills.

The high birth rate means there are too many people looking for the few available jobs that there are to offer. Despite these problems, the South is slowly starting to move up. Marshy areas have been drained and trees planted. New dams, irrigation schemes and motorways have been built. The hot, dry summers and the sandy beaches are attracting more tourists. Some of the earlier migrants to the North have returned with the money in which they earned there. Even so, the gap between the North and the South of Italy continues to grow. Italy 6 Now we come to Northern Italy. Northern Italy is known as the richest part of Italy.

The regions that make up this part are; Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Ridge, Friuli-Venezia Guilia, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria, Marches, and Latium. These regions make up the upper half of the boot. Many kinds of lavish dishes come from Northern Italy since they have more money than Southern Italy. From Aosta Valley, come olive oil, pastas, cheese, potatoes, breads, and several types of meats. Since they have more money they can afford fertilizer for their cows and be able to have beef. They also make dishes with different kinds of irds and fish. For dessert they turn to fruits like berries, pears and apples. The “The Valle d’Aosta (Vallee d’Aoste in French) regional DOC covers 23 types of wine and variations. But such curios as the red Torrette and Enfer d’Arvier and the white Muscat de Chambave and Blanc de Morgex (from continental Europe’s highest vineyards) need to be sampled locally. Meals conclude with the passing of the grolla, a pot containing caffe valdostana (coffee with red wine, grappa and lemon peel), which is sipped from numerous spouts” (Italian Trade Commission, “The Foods of Aosta Valley, 2010).

Piedmont is famous for their many variations for antipasti. They also enjoy different kinds of game, fish, pork, lamb, beef and donkey meat. Donkey meat, that’s a new one for me to ever hear. So crazy go to another country and find a new type of meat. Not really appealing. Liguria is famous for their numerous traditional dishes. Some of these dishes include; Snails Ligurian Style, Chickpea Polenta, and Sun Dried Tomatoes. They also eat fish, rabbit, mushrooms, nuts, and beans. Lombardy is known for its exquisite dishes. They have more taste for meats like beef, fish, poultry, veal, and pork.

They are famous for their cheeses. They use frogs, snails, and crayfish in their meals. Did Italy 7 you know that Lombardy is the official birthplace of Ravioli. They are a small producer of olive oil. Veneto is a producer of rice, corn, fish and livestock. Gardens are big through Veneto. For desserts the like cakes, candied fruits, custards and nuts. Next, we have Trentino-Alto Adige, is known for their polento. They have soups made with meat and vegetables. They are famous for their Speck. Italy is also known for their major production of apples, which produce apple fritters and strudels.

Their choices of desserts include honey, cakes, nuts and candied fruits. Friuli-Venezia Giulia is near the mountains and valleys. They are known for their vineyards. Poultry, beef, lamb and sausage are used here. Cheese, fruits, breads, pastas, oils, and white wine are found here. Emilia-Romagna is famous for their pastas. They also are eat polenta, vegetable, rolls, soups, and pastas. Some of their desserts they indulge in are fritters, fruits, nuts, tarts, and cakes. They are famous for their aged vinegar and wines. Last but not least we have Tuscany, whom is famous for their breads. They re also big on pastas, soups, seafood, roasts made with beef, poultry, fish, pork and game. Their desserts include cakes, crepes, and fruits. Umbrian’s are into truffles, pastas, eggs, and meats such as pork, beef, rabbit, and lamb. They like salads and vegetables. Breads and buns are served as a dessert here. Marches is known for all the luscious meats that they cook. Beef, pork, game, veal and poultry are some of the meats they cook with. They also like olives, breads, peas, chesses, and pizzas. For desserts they like breads topped with nuts, raisins and fruits. Antipasto is what makes Latium well known.

They have many feasts with several kinds of antipastos. They also produce vegetables, beans and olive oils. They are also known for their many kinds of chesses that make. Latium desserts include cakes, buns, coffee and gelato. Italy 8 Northern Italy uses many kinds of languages, Italian being the first. The countries that use the most Italian for their language include; Tuscany, Umbria, Marches, and Latium. Bavarian is also used in Northern Italy. Cimbrian is used in Veneto. Occitan is the official language of Piedmont. Ligurians use Ligurian. Lombard is Lombardy’s language.

German and Venetian is spoken is Trentino-Alto Adige. The language of Emilio-Romagna is Emilio-Romagnolo. Franco-Proven? al is the language of NW Aosta Valley. Friuli and Venetian are the language of Friuli-Venezia-Giulia. They too have a lot of different languages that they use compared to Southern Italy. Does Northern Italy have any problems with obesity? They have higher rates than Southern Italy due to being a richer part of the country. After looking at the chart I see that there is not much of a difference, but the rates are higher in Northern Italy than Southern Italy.

Still not as high as the rates of obesity in America. Industrial growth has been very rapid in the industrial triangle which is located in the lowlands of the Northern Italian Plains. This is a very wealthy area in Italy. The three corners of the triangle are made up of Genoa, Milan and Turin. Industry is so good because they are closer to the French, German and U. K. markets. Good can be exported by boat or air and imported by rail or vehicle. Factories take up a majority of the large amounts of land in Northern Italy. This makes for a large workforce. Southern Italy and Northern Italy have proven to be very ifferent from each other. You see now that there are more sources of meats in Northern Italy but less obesity in Southern Italy. You see there are more of a demand for sweets in Southern Italy than there is in Northern. One part of Italy 9 the country has money the other is poor. Northern Italy uses several more languages than Southern Italy does. There are more jobs in Northern Italy. Southern Italy does not have many cows for meat, but Northern Italy does since they have the money to feed their livestock. There are just so many differences from one part of the country to the other.

There are some things that both Northern and Southern Italy both posses. Your appearance in Italy is everything; it can make or break you. Having lavish appearance shows the kind of family you come from, what social group you belong to and what level of education you now have. They believe that your first impression is what categorizes you. Clothes me the difference of everything. Wine is another. Both parts of the country make and sell wines. That is a pastime for some. Grape vineyards and wine tasting is big in Italy, no matter what part you are in.

Religion is something that almost all of Italy practices in. Roman Catholic is the most common. Some Protestant and Jewish communities exist and Muslim immigrant is a growing religion in Italy. This is where the Vatican is located. Italy 9 Works Cited Regalis, (2010, April). “History, heraldry, royalty, nobility, biography. Retrieved from http://www. regalis. com/ (2001). National Journal of Obesity , 25(2), Retrieved from http://www. nature. com/ijo/journal/v25/n2/full/0801321a. html Anderson, B. (2010). The Foods of Aosta valley. Retrieved from http://www. italianmade. com/regions/foods1. cfm

[Solved] the differences and similarites of dogs and cats

The Differences and Similarities of a Dog and Cat
Two domestic animals that share many common and different elements are dog and cat. Despite being different species they exhibit many surprising similarities. By examining these characteristics of each animal can become helpful when selecting a pet.

Domestic dogs and cats share many common elements. They both make great companions as pets and are very loyal to their handlers and family members. Dogs and cats also have over two hundred breeds. In addition, dogs and cats have excellent hearing they hear very high pitches that humans are unable to hear. They can funnel the sound into their ears by turning them in the same direction of the sound. Dogs and cats vision is also unique. They are able to see very little color like yellows, whites and blues; however, they are red-green colorblind but can see well at night. Finally, their sense of smell is excellent as well. Their sense of smell is very sensitive and they are able to smell thing fourteen times better than humans can.

Although domestic dogs and domestic cats have common elements, they also have many they differ from each other. The first thing that is different is the sound that they both make the cat can meow and make a purring sound, whereas the dog barks and can make a growling sound. Second, they both have very different types of paws cats have sharp claws that they use for ripping and tearing. Dogs have duller claws that they use mostly for digging and some have webbed feet for better swimming abilities. In addition, dogs and cats have different features like the dogs have longer noses and their tongues are smooth. Whereas the cat has, a smaller nose and they have rough tongues that feel like sand paper. Finally, both dog and cat live different life styles. The dog is usually very active and likes to play fetch and chase after things, whereas the cat does not move around as much and does not play fetch but may chase thing for a little while.

Therefore, domestic cats and dogs have many similarities and many differences. Both dogs and cats make excellent companions despite their many differences. A prospective owner should take into careful consideration each animal difference before deciding which animal may be right for them.

[Solved] the differences between the aeneas and odysseus essay sample 3831

Both the Odyssey and the Aeneid portion some similarities as heroic poems ; both describe the tests of a epic figure who is the ideal representative of a peculiar civilization. There are even single scenes in the Aeneid are borrowed from the Odyssey. Yet. why are Odysseus and Aeneas so unlike one another? The reply is that the writers lived in two different universes. whose values and perceptual experiences varied greatly of a cardinal degree. Grecian civilization and literature had a great ascendant influence over Roman life. hence. the influence of manner and the narratives written by Virgil adopted many of the old Grecian ways. However. Virgil did non copy. he gave a new significance to the plants that he borrowed and added his ain ideas and sentiments that expressed and explained Roman life to the remainder of the universe.

To exemplify. a common thought is woven into the Odyssey. usage. Customss were handed down by the Gods. and were meant to maintain work forces safe by giving them civilisation. When work forces flaunted their imposts and the Gods. they invited requital and pandemonium by puting themselves outside the appointed range of humanity. Furthermore. if the imposts are followed and proper regard given the Gods. it is possible for adult male to populate in harmoniousness indefinitely. These differences in ethos are most easy seen when Virgil borrows a scene and transforms it to his ain terminals. For illustration. Virgil adopts the episode where Odysseus is washed up on shore and meets the Phaiakians and uses it to organize the nucleus of Aeneid I and II. In the Odyssey. the episode begins with Odysseus on his stopgap raft. heading place after all his tests. His eventual transition place has been agreed upon by Zeus.

However. in the past Odysseus wounded Polyphemos and in foolhardy wantonness questioned the power of the Gods. while he was flying from the Cyclops. For this insult. Poseidon decided to do Odysseus’ journey place a long and hard one. The God of the sea sends a storm his manner but Odysseus survives with a gift and counsel. After Poseidon departs. he eventually reaches the shore with Athena’s aid. The gap scenes in the Aeneid corresponds to Homer’s sequence. Aeneas and the Trojans are on their ships. heading to carry through their ends after much trouble. However. Juno is worried that the Trojans’ posterities will finally excel the Greeks. so she convinces Aeolus to let go of to some air currents to destruct them. Aeolus releases them by forcing his lance at the wing of the mountain. about lay waste toing the Trojans. Much to the help of Aeneas. Neptune quiets the air currents and the seas. and so sit off.

Odysseus and the Trojans have much in common. Both are plagued by Gods ( shows how the Gods played a big portion in both of their civilizations ) . Despite their problems. both are besides guaranteed eventual success. for their achievements have been ordained by the supreme God. and this can non be denied. However. the differentiation between the beginning of their troubles is an of import 1. Odysseus volitionally invited catastrophe by flashing the power of the Gods. If he had non done so and followed usage as he should. he would hold returned home much Oklahoman with much less parturiency. The Trojans are merely capable to catastrophe. for no ground whatsoever. There are once more basic similarities between the two state of affairss ; both Phaiakia and Carthage represent ideal societies to the roamers. But once more. the differences between the two societies illuminate the differences in political orientation. Phaiakia is a inactive civilization. a type of fairy narrative topographic point where everything is in perfect harmoniousness. Equally long as its citizens follow usage as they should. it will go on to be in flawlessness. Carthage is a dynamic civilization. one nexus in the concatenation of in turn better societies.

The former is an immortal society. bing everlastingly ; the latter is a mortal society in the procedure of birth. and accordingly the possibility of decease. In the Odyssey. Odysseus sits in the ashes of the fire. Everyone rests. and the following twenty-four hours is spent in celebrations. Afterwards. Odysseus recounts his assorted rovings to the Phaiakians. Then he is sped on his manner place. In the Aeneid. Venus sends Cupid in the signifier of Ascanius to do Dido autumn in love with Aeneas. Aeneas so recounts two narratives to Dido and her tribunal: the autumn of Troy and the Trojan rovings. Meanwhile. Dido has become enamored with Aeneas. and finally Aeneas reciprocates her love. He decides to remain in Carthage and aid with the edifice until he is chastised by Hermes. When he so prepares to go forth. Dido becomes enraged and so despondent. Finally. after he is gone she takes her ain life. Even though Odysseus is given really good intervention by a assortment of people. he ne’er doubts for a minute that he belongs place on Ithaka. For illustration. when he was with Calypso. he had immortality and godly company ; furthermore. his return place would be fraught with hardship. His rovings simply represent his unceasing ascent back to his proper topographic point. were he ever has and ever will belong.

However. Aeneas’ narrative is far different. He begins with the autumn of Troy. which was precipitated by the Trojan Horse. Aeneas is the pinnacle of his civilization. the idol of forfeit and responsibility who carried his male parent out of Troy. Even he falls quarry to his human passions and corsets with Dido. Dido is so consumed in flames merely like Troy. and her concluding words are prelude to strife between Rome and Carthage in the hereafter. The comparing of these scenes shows the cardinal differences between the Greek and Roman ideals. The Greeks believed in the everlasting power of usage to protect and continue them. and that any calamity stemmed from their ain foolhardiness. In a sense. Odysseus brought his problems upon himself. The Romans’ universe was much more unsure because of the changeless possibility for catastrophe. and believed that human being was inherently a calamity. Even had all the Trojans done nil incorrect. they still would hold received the air currents sent at Juno’s want. All they had was vulnerable. their lives. their metropoliss. and their civilisation ; anything could be destroyed by the godless strife. Therefore. it is non surprising that the Greek and Roman heroic poems were so different. since what the they perceived were truly two different universes.

[Solved] the dobe juhoansi essay

Lee, Richard B., 1993, The Dobe Ju/ ?hoansi. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, (second edition).

Bushman: a member of a group of short-statured peoples of southern Africa who traditionally live by hunting and foraging. While the term ?bushman? has come to be known as both racist and sexist, it is easily the most recognized term when describing the people living amongst the bush of southern Africa. The San, as they are now known as, are a cluster of indigenous peoples of southern Africa who speak a click language and who have a tradition of living by hunting and gathering (10). In the book The Dobe Ju/?hoansi, Richard B. Lee, an anthropologist from the University of Toronto, takes an interesting and in-depth look into the San life by centering his studies on one specific group. Lee?s focus of study takes place on the border between the countries of Namibia and Botswana in an area called the Dobe. Here there live a tribe of people known as the Dobe Ju/?hoansi.

Lee centers on several important issues of the Ju/?hoansi culture and lifestyle throughout the book. He provides a tremendous amount of information that is broken into twelve chapters that continually draws deeper into the internal thinking of the Ju/?hoansi culture. The method of bringing out this information is delivered first externally with their environment and examples of hunting techniques while moving into deeper issues such as sexuality and religion. Lee also informs the reader on the Ju/?hoansi?s kinship, social organization, marriage, as well as conflict, their politics, and social change.

Lee begins the case study by providing an interesting lead-in as to the trials and tribulations of locating the Dobe people. I thought that this was an interesting device in order to grasp the reader?s attention towards the immense isolation that the Ju/?hoansi remain in. Once contact has been established, Lee delves into covering basic background information such as the environment that they live in including climate, physical features, and settlement patterns. I found this information to be very helpful in my attempt to familiarize myself with the Dobe Ju/?hoansi as to how they live. While Lee covers a great deal of information about the Dobe Ju/?hoansi, I found that the most important issues lie within their subsistence, kinship, and sexuality.

The Dobe Ju/?hoansi are a hunting and gathering group of people, which is thought to be how early man lived. Therefore, it is easy to see why Lee acknowledges the importance of studying the Ju/?hoansi while they are still relatively isolated. Here we are able to view a culture that retains our early ancestral pattern. As recently as 1964, 85% of their calories were the result of hunting and gathering (156). That number has since decreased due to the increased Westernization. The most interesting feature of the Ju/?hoansi foraging is the relatively little amount of work needed to feed a village. As Lee observed on a trip to a mongongo tree, that within a two-hour period, a woman gathered 30-50 lbs. of nuts enabling a person to eat for ten days (40).

The kinship of the Dobe Ju/?hoansi is very important in creating order to interpersonal relationships, inheritance, and marriage (foreword, v). Lee suceeds where others have failed in that he is able to take a difficult and complex topic (social organization of kin) and create an easier way to understand it. Instead of diving right into the organization, Lee provides a diagram showing what and where the terms are as seen on pages 66 through 69. The most interesting part, in my opinion, was the limited number of personal names. There are only 35 men?s names and 32 woman?s names in use in 1964 (71). In fact 75% of all the men had one or another of the eleven most popular names, while 73% of woman had one of the twelve most popular names (72). The reasoning behind this was due to the Ju/?hoansi belief that a child must be named for somebody. A first-born son is named after his father?s father, and the daughter named after her father?s mother. Never are parents allowed to name their children after themselves. This varies greatly with our society where it is a commonality.

The sexuality of the Ju/?hoansi is also very interesting. In Ju/?hoansi culture, girls and boys learn and take part in sex at a very early age. Parents and children sleep in the same bed, under the same blanket and sex is performed discreetly as the child sleeps. Sexual play is also considered just another part of childhood. Lee tells the story of one woman and her discovery of sex by playing sexual games with her friends. The woman states that ?most boys and girls will have some experience of sexual intercourse by age 15.? (91) The Ju/?hoansi also fail to have forms of sexual behavior that is common in our society. This includes oral and anal sex, bondage, and sado-masochistic practices. Instead, the one goal is orgasm (91).

The Ju/?hoansi today are very different from the life lived in the 1960s. The Ju/?hoansi have been in more contact with modernization. Whereas in 1964 hunting and gathering made up 85% of the food calories, now only 30% of the calories come from it. The rest is found in milk and meat from domestic stock, store-bought, or governmental mealie meal (156). There has also been a rise in their cholesterol, high blood pressure, and heart disease. These were uncommon ailments before, but diets of carbohydrates, heavier smoking, alcohol consumption, and changes in lifestyle are the reasoning behind this. Finally, the education level of the Ju/?hoansi is very low. The large majority has little or no schooling and job prospects are low. Poverty remains high with little prospect of change.

The method of Lee?s book is done very well, in my opinion. He proceeds to ?set-up? the reader with an outline of the Dobe Ju/?hoansi people as well as describing the scene to the reader as if they were a part of the anthropological case study themselves. He organizes the book in a relatively efficient way. I felt it was important to introduce the reader to the people of the Dobe as well as the condition experienced in the African bush.

Lee?s style of writing is also very powerful in gaining the reader?s interest. Unlike Chagnon?s Yanomamo, this book captures the intrigue of the reader by not filling the book with an assortment of anthropological jargon. Instead, Lee allows the Ju/?hoansi to speak for themselves through their own stories and experiences. The complex matters that Lee intends to discuss are usually provided with a Ju/?hoansi conversation or story, which helps for the technical ?jargon? to feel more alive and real. The one example where I feel this is most evident is in the chapter of kinship and social organization. Most commonly, this area is considered dull, difficult, and confusing. Lee, however, succeeds in providing some interest on the topic. The story of meeting his ?brother? of the same name is a great example of this.

Overall, I feel that Lee is effective in getting his information across on the Dobe Ju/?hoansi. He is able to grab the reader?s attention and maintain in throughout the book. I think Lee succeeds in his goal of sharing his knowledge of a culture similar to how our own culture may have developed. Throughout the book, the reader will be able to visit the Dobe, its culture, and perhaps grasp a higher understanding of man and his evolution through life. This can all be done by comprehending the life and culture of the Dobe Ju/?hoansi

see title

[Solved] the doolittle raid

On April 18th, 1942, James H. Doolittle planned and led the first air attack on Japanese after they attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor. This was the most daring operations by the United States in the young Pacific war at this time and was known as the Doolittle Raid. The attack was launched from the aircraft carrier Hornet. Doolittle wired a Japanese piece medal he had received prior to the war to the first 500 pound bomb to be dropped on Tokyo. In order for the over loaded planes to take off, the carrier had to run at full speed.

The Hornet could hold sixteen planes and it was nearly impossible for the raiders to land back on the aircraft carrier after the bombing so they were forced to land in China. On the day of the bombing, the 16 bombers took off 150 miles short of their planned takeoff. After about four hours, the raiders reached Japan and bombed targets in Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagoya. Many of the planes landed with great success, a few did not make it and landed in the sea. After the air raid, Doolittle met up with the other survivors and traveled through Japanese lines being aided by Chinese guerillas.

Several of his men were killed and captured by Japanese soldiers. The Raid caused a lot of damage to Japanese factories and ships. Doolittle became a hero which fueled American moral. Roosevelt awarded Doolittle the Congressional Medal of Honor. Doolittle’s actions energized America and promoted the support to the war effort. The Japanese were embarrassed by the attack and changed their strategies to protect themselves from future assaults. This battle is often said to be the turning point in the war of the Pacific.

[Solved] the differences between dialect and accent

English language is considered as to be a rich language because of the variations which seem to be intriguing and fascinating for linguists and language enthusiasts. Accent and dialect are evidences of this language variety. Factors such as time, place, social context, and the medium dictate these variations (Pope 170). These two terms are given interchanging meanings as the terms are encountered in everyday life, but in reality, they have different technical definitions. Phonetics is a field that greatly contributes to the understanding of these differences.

In addition, phonetics contributes to the enrichment of fields such as dialectology, sociolinguistics, linguistic geography, and historical linguistics (Laver 55). Cameron defines dialect as the regional variation within speech patterns of language that form due to differences in geography, social background, and educational influences. Peer-group pressure also dictates what dialect a person will use (109). Laver illustrates the meaning of dialect in terms of the types and meanings of words available for a range of grammatical patterns that can be combined to form thoughts.

Dialects are in themselves different in such a way that they involve dissimilarity in morphology, syntax, lexicography, and semantics (56). Wise, Jones, and Bradford stress the geographical factor as the main factor contributing to the variation in dialects, which they define as dialect as referring to a specific vocabulary and grammar as influenced by the region where the language is spoken. , with nothing to do with the pronunciation of the words. Dialect varies with locality. An example would be the name of a food, described as a flat, circular slice of potato cooked in a fish and chip shop.

The name of this food varies across a country. In Britain, this may be referred to as scallop (in Warrington), patty (in South Wales), fritter (in Liverpool), klandlike (in West Bromwich), and smack (in Crewe). Grammatical differences are also essential features of dialects. Also, the pattern of words or syntax is different among different dialects; however, the meaning of the statement is still retained. (Wyse, Jones, and Bradford 196-197). On the contrary, variations in speech patterns, depending on how a language is learned as a second language, are characteristics of the accent.

The Oxford English Dictionary defines it as ‘The mode of utterance peculiar to an individual, locality, or nation’ (cited in Bauer 8). This definition is in fact general for some linguists, because the mode of utterance may be in the context of usage of words. Accent is strictly a matter of pronunciation (Bauer 8). English for example, may have French, Italian, German, British, American accent, and neutral American accent. Each accent has its own characteristic sound that creates its identity as an accent, as influenced by vowel and consonant formations of the mother tongue (Cameron 110).

Wyse and his colleagues define accent as the way the language is spoken. Accents can also be geographically dependent, with others related to social characteristics. The general description for the term accent would in general be always linked to the way the language is spoken (197). Accent, in simpler terms, refers to pronunciation of words. Everybody uses his or her own accent because everyone who speaks pronounces words (Trudgill 7). In England, when a person is heard of having an accent, that person is considered to use non-standard English.

The Oxford English Dictionary says that accent includes distortion of the pronunciation (mispronunciation of vowels or consonants), or misplacing of stress. Therefore, people ‘with accent’ are considered by linguistically uneducated people as uneducated (Bauer 8). Accent can be classified by either regional or local accent, broad accent, or non-regional accent. It depends on the specificity or the range that an accent is identifiable and associable to the region where it is spoken.

If its identification of a region, a state for example is marked by an accent, it is classified as regional or local accent. Being highly localized, it is also referred to as broad accent. When a certain accent is not that distinctive like a regional accent, a country accent for example (British accent or American accent), that accent is classified as non-regional (Laver 56). Two or more different accents or dialects can be possessed by a single speaker. For example, a Scottish speaker may use Scottish dialect with different accents, or use a different Scottish dialect but retain the same accent.

A native of Kentucky may use Standard English with a regional Kentucky accent for multinationals to have better understanding of that person, or use Kentucky dialect with a more profound Kentucky accent when just talking with some relatives (Laver 57). Trudgill explains that the distinction between dialect and accent in order to demonstrate the possibility of speaking Standard English in terms of the regional accent. Standard English does not concern pronunciation of words. In fact, accent is a much more of an indication of the certain region where a speaker comes from than dialect wherein grammar and vocabulary are observed (7).

In British usage, dialect and accent are two terms treated differently from each other. Grammar and pronunciation are tackled under the term dialect, whereas pronunciation is under the term accent. For the American usage, accent is considered to be just a part of dialect that is a broader field of study (Trask and Stockwell 72). Again, accent is a more distinctive part of language. It is much easier to adapt to a specific accent than to change someone’s dialect. Still, dialect and accent can be adapted by familiarization and practice.

There are people who can speak different accents using a similar dialect, or speak in different dialects but same accent. Both dialect and accent are associated with some certain economic or educational status by some linguistically unsophisticated people. But, this kind of description of dialect and accent are rejected by linguists. Everybody uses both a dialect, and each person has accent. Either standard or not, it is for everyone to appreciate the language that is used to communicate, no matter what accent or dialect it is.

[Solved] the difference between interviewing interrogation

Interviewing  &   interrogation – two  forms  of   probing  are  the  powerful  tools  that  are  used  to  delve  into  matters  of  immense  consideration.  However, there are fine distinctions between viability of the two.

Interrogation  is  an  inquiry or  examination  that  is  meant  to  evoke,  debrief  or   elicit certain  unknown  or  hidden  facts  that  are  meant to  be  brought  to  the  limelight. It  is  said  that  this  technique of  information  gathering  is  usually  used  by  police, military &  intelligence agencies. On  the  other  hand  interview  is  a sort  of  research,  a studious  inquiry  aimed  at  a discovery of  something  innate  that  an  interviewer  aspires to obtain  from  the  interviewee  through  a professional  conduct.

 Conversely,  it  should  be  noted  that  all  interviews  are  sorts  of interrogations  whereas  all  interrogations  are  not  interviews. Nevertheless,  all  of  us  ranging  from  different  age – groups  undergo  some  sort  of  inquiry in every  aspect  of   our  life  but  not  everyone  goes through  interviews  with  such a  frequency. A teenager  interrogated  by his  parents  on  reaching  home  late  night, he  is  questioned  by  his  subject  teachers  on  not meeting  assignment  deadlines.  Same child  is  inquired  by  friends  on  not  attending  a  birthday  party.  These are all forms of interrogations that the child encountered.  However, If   the  same  guy  receives  a  call  for  a  high school admission  interview  that  is  another  separate  professional  &  purposeful  entity  than  mere  probing.  Hence we  establish  that  both  forms  of  communication  devices  vary  in  forms  &  intensity. Now  we  shall  look  at  basic  differences   between  the  two  modes  of  inspection( Gordon & Fleisher,2006). Interviews   are   usually formal &   interrogations are both formal & informal.

  1. Interrogations  may  turn  wild  sometimes,  in case  of  torture  the  interrogator  may  use  even  unethical  means  to  generate  results whereas ethical  imperatives  &  constraints  highly  weigh  in  interviews.
  2. Interviews  are  conducted  in  controlled  cordial  settings  but  investigations  have  no  such  limits  always(Kvale & Brinkmann,2008).
  3. Generally  people  can evade  interrogations  but  interviews  are  set  with  the  consensus  of   the  subjects.

Interrogation  in  the  criminal  context   is  an  art  &  the  interrogator  must  learn  melodramatic  skills. Here several other factors need to be considered as well.  As  in,  the  investigator  must  learn  to  swap  his roles  cause  his  suspects  may  range  from  different age groups  &  professions. They may be lawyers, doctors, housewives or juvenile delinquents. Hence,  the  investigator  may  be  able  to  obtain  desired  confessions  from  suspects creating  a comfort  zone  &  rapport. It is important to perform the task in a small controlled, sound-insulated room void of distractions.  Interrogators  must  avoid  rooms  that have  clocks,  telephones,  intercoms etc, cause  those  can  cause  distractions  to  both  people  involved  in  the  process. To psychologically  trap  such  subjects  using  all  possible techniques  we  must  consider  subject’s verbal & non-verbal gestures  as  well.  In  this  case  creating  an  eye- contact  is  also  mandatory.  It  provides  an  insight  if  interrogator  can  read faces  &  eye  movements(Kvale & Brinkmann,2008).

Besides,  interrogator  must  have  a  documented  form  of  the  case  he  is  investigating,  to  consult  the  papers  for  information  about  the  case as  well as  subject’s  background.  He  must  also  jot  down  the  key  facts  or  results  being  obtained  from  the  process. Apart  from  inquiring  &  probing there  must  be  argumentative  points  on  which  to  counter  question. In  order  to  create  such  argumentative  modes  the  interrogator  should  be  analytical  enough  to  gauge  critical  facts  or  confessions  on  whom  further  line  of reason can  be built.

A  specific  time frame  should  be  allotted   to  the  whole  process  in  order  to make  it  comprehensive  &  well-built. In  the  end,  the  investigator  must  understand  the  fact  that  even  after  such  prudent  &  thorough  investigations  some  questions  would  still remain  unanswered,  which  can  be  catered  or  further  worked  upon  as  the  whole  interrogatory  process  is  based  on  trial  &  error  method.

In  recent  trends  criminal  interrogations  have  become  infamous  &  have  taken  very  brutally  harsh  forms,  defying  the  true  spirit  of  investigations. Partly,  because  of  the  tactics  adopted  in  the  name  of enhanced  interrogation  techniques  or  alternative  set  of  procedures,   the  phrase  assumed  by   the George W. Bush administration in  the  United States to  describe  interrogation   methods  used  by US military  intelligence  and  the  Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)  to  extract  information  from  individuals  captured  in  the  war  on terror  soon  after  the  September  11 attacks  in  2001(Alexander & Bruning, 200).

Stories  continue  to  be  concocted  explaining the  real  face  of  tactics  which  can  be  termed  as  even  torture.  I  feel  skeptic  about  adding  the  mental  tortures  in  the  category  of  any  sort  of  investigations. However,  places  like  Guantanamo  bay  sound  synonymous  to  torture  cells  where  criminals  are  tormented  to  the  utmost  degree  leaving  numerous  innocents  mentally  upset  as  a   result.

To   recapitulate, both tools have  their own  pros &  cons with  varying  intensity levels. It   is  up to  the  researcher  or  seeker  of   the  truth  to  deploy  a  method  which  can  bring  forward  the  best  possible  results, for  both  are meant  to  clear  doubts  &  obtain  apparent repercussions.

References:

  1. Alexander, M. & Bruning, J.(2008). How to Break a Terrorist: The U.S. Interrogators Who Used Brains, Not Brutality, to Take Down the Deadliest Man in Iraq. Free Press
  2. Gordon, N.J. & Fleisher, W.L.(2006). Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques. Academic Press
  3. Kvale, S. & Brinkmann, S.(2008). Interviews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing. Sage Publications