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[Solved] the creative process

The creative process

From where do we get our notion of art? The assumption is that art is something that takes talent, patience, and hard work, and thus should be appreciated for the considerable skills of its maker. Another assumption is that art is supposed to look “like something”. But who is to say that rendering objects from observation has anything to do with art? Is it possible for certain items to possess an intrinsic beauty or merit that can traverse cultural differences and the boundaries of time? The final image observed by the viewers is the result of laborious and painstaking work of artist’s imagination combined with his skills and talents. The creation of art conventions, the specific tools used to form a visual or other cultural code, made the art process not simply reproduction of really existing objects. A familiar example of convention might be the gold halo which was an accepted feature of Christian art for many centuries. The halo motif was used as a creative imagination of the aura or inner glow holy personages were supposed to possess. Seeing these gold discs as halos is the result of creative approach of the artist to the subject matter that allows viewers to perceive it so. The blue dress of the Virgin is used in a similar manner; the color blue was symbolic of heaven and its use throughout much of Christian art was to be a reminder of Mary’s divine nature. With time the creative process evolved and conventions became more subtle and complex than designating an idea to color.

Throughout the history of art there have been conventions very pervasive and persuasive. This is true of an idea called linear perspective. First perfected by the Romans and then rediscovered in the Renaissance, linear perspective is a geometric system for depicting depth on a two-dimensional plane. One-point perspective, where all lines converge upon a single vanishing point was by far the most popular method for conveying space in the early Renaissance. The epoch of Renaissance was the time when the question of creative reproduction of volume and space became pivotal. One of the early masters who capably assimilated the notions of volume and perspective was Tommasco d. Giovanni di Simone Guidi, better known as Masaccio. (Kissik, 169) He was one of the first to understand and creatively employ the relationship between volume and perspective and his painting of Christ in The Holy Trinity is a notable result. The idea was to use linear perspective in rendering the surrounding framework so that would effectively create a deep central space. Masaccio then goes even further in his perfection; he reasserts this space by modeling his figure in light and shadow, which reaffirms the viewer’s anticipation of space in the work.

During the Renaissance the idea of illusionistic space was based on the assumption that art responded to certain truths about nature of reality and our participation in it. However, the ever evolving process of creating art re-appraised the assumptions about the way the world works and the artist set quite opposite aims. These were the Cubists who by inverting the conventions that once defined the nature of reality reinvented the world of painting through decidedly twentieth-century temperament. The Cubists’ idea of flatness takes its premise from the notion that truth in painting must correspond to the physical reality of the two-dimensional plane and the shifting nature of perception. The creative process acquired a disintegrating character. For example, Picasso’s portraits move away from natural appearance and traditional conventions for the depiction of volume. The viewer sees the bodies on his portraits as fragmented, dislocated yet still identifiable assemblages of forms. Picasso’s collapse in the middle and background into the immediate vicinity of the figure enhances the dispersion of the body across the picture plane.

The way the artists achieve systematic destruction of space on two-dimensional plane is that they through their artistic view experienced destruction of human values. Cubism dismantled the methods of earlier art and its radical disregard for established truths was part of a more general cultural and intellectual overhaul taking place in the first decade of the twentieth century.

            Thus, each epoch finds its representation in the numerous artistic works which are not simple rendering of reality into canvas but rather the results of the creative process that underwent social influence.

Reference:

Kissick, John, Art. Context and Criticism. WCB Brown & Benchmark, 1993

[Solved] the council nicaea

The Council Nicaea

For more than two centuries, the Christian church suffered persecution under the Roman Empire particularly those in Rome. With the rise of Constantine the Great to the throne, the persecution stopped as he was sympathetic with Christianity in view of his famous Christian vision just before the battle at Melvian Bridge against Maxentius in 312 BCE whom he emerged victorious. From then on he legalized Christian worship. The religious freedom gained by Christians as a result of Constantine’s vision was further enhanced by the famous “Edict of Milan” which calls for the toleration of Christian worship and for restoration of all things and properties that belong to the Christian Church.

Along with the religious freedom enjoyed by the Christian church during this period were doctrinal issues that were affecting the teachings of Christianity. Foremost of these issues was the conflict that arose when a local church priest by the name of Arius who according to McGonigle, and Quigley (1988) “vigorously attacked the bishop’s theology because it did not seem to uphold sufficiently the distinctions within the Godhead” (p. 97). The issues that were raised were about the great mystery of the Trinity in Unity as well as the question of the deity of Christ. McGonigle and Quigley pointed out that Arius proposed that Christ divinity was simply attributed to him simply “as a way of describing his goodness” (p. 97). Arius argued that Christ the son was also a creature like us but he was the greatest and “the most perfect of all god’s creatures, but he was not co-equal, co-eternal or the same divine substance as the Father” (McGonigle & Quigley 1988, p. 97).

Because of this teaching, Arius was condemned as heretic, but his teaching has gained popularity because “it was simply an easier way to understand the mysterious reality of God” (McGonigle & Quigley, p. 97). This theological issue has led to a broader crisis which threatened Constantine’s vision of Christianity as an instrument for bringing unity to the empire. This theological dispute became the most important issue that was tried in the council of Nicea which was the first economical meeting attended by more than three hundred bishops in the city of Nicaea in Asia Minor in 325 that was presided by Emperor Constantine.

Arius’ ideas were rejected by the council of Nicaea and was condemned as heretical because it deviated from the established doctrine of the Christian church. However, Arius’ ideas was condemned by the council in the light of another famous ideas presented by a famous young bishop named Athanasius. According to Athanasius, Christ was “of the same divine essence or substance as the Father although of distinct personality” (McGonigle and Quigley, p. 98). Athanasius argued that if Christ were less than the Father, he could not have been the savior of the human race. Athanasius idea is that the Christ had existed from all eternity with the Father as co-equal, and consubstantial, that is, Christ was truly God.

In this two religious ideas presented at the council of Nicaea, Athanasius ideas was more acceptable in the sense that it more logical and more theological. It is quite logical to think that if Christ was indeed a human being just like anyone, he should have also possessed the same weaknesses that anyone has. That the Christ may have also sinned because according to the Bible, “all have sinned and have fallen short to the glory of God (Romans 3: 23). The logical idea behind this is that if Christ was also a human and that his divinity was merely virtues of goodness, then the Christ also needs a savior or the Bible was wrong in its assertions that every human being have sinned and that they deserved God’s punishment. Furthermore, given that the Christ was also a creature but of highest form, that he also have sinned, then he also deserved God’s punishment.

            The idea that Christ was of the same essence with God presents a more convincing theological argument than the idea that the Christ was purely of human nature. Although admittedly, it was really quite difficult to reconcile Christ deity and divinity with his humanity, Athanasius holds that the knowledge of God must come through Christ. Referring to Athanasius idea, Barnes (2001) stated, “He concentrates on the doctrine of the redemption and its presupposition that the Christ is both truly God and truly man. Nevertheless, even this idea is more logical than the idea that Christ was only a divine person. Logical in a sense that it provides a deeper link between God’s plan of salvation and the way it was fulfilled by God. The Apostle Paul made this clear in his letter to the Philippians (Chap. 2: 6-11), Christ humiliated himself by taking the human form to die on the cross so that anyone who repent and believes him, will be forgiven of their sins and be save from the eternal punishment of God.

Argument against the six other ideas

            Barnes pointed out that the council of Nicaea in 325 “tackled a large agenda, from voluntary castration to the jurisdiction of metropolitan bishops and the date of Easter” (Barnes, p. 14). However, compared with all other ideas which were mostly Christological, ecclesiological, and theological arguments presented at the council of Nicaea, the most important was the idea that was formulated out of the theological arguments between the Libyan priest Arius, and Alexandrian bishop Athanasius. The Council of Nicaea formulated the so called “Apostle’s Creed and the Nicene Creed in order to clearly summarized the Christian doctrine against heretical teachings of Arius.

            Nonetheless, citing the work of Williams, 2000: 5, Hauerwas (2007) argued that while William patiently guides readers towards understanding the issues being debated, Arius was not given due process. Hauerwas stated, “What is striking, however, is that Arius received nothing like patients consideration at the hands of his opponent Athanasius. His arguments were misrepresented, oversimplified, and distorted. And on the basis of this, he was pronounced a heretic. Williams suggest that Arius have been argued against, but instead he was brutally expelled” (p. 217). Thus the ideas presented in the council of Nicaea regarding the Trinitarian debate about Christology dominates all other ideas presented during this historic meeting of more than three hundred bishops in the city of Nicaea. Indeed, almost every literature dealing with the council of Nicaea highlighted only the debates between Arius and Athanasius.

            However, William’s view of the debate was unacceptable because every literature on church history spends a great deal of space that explains Arius theological ideas. It suggests that his ideas was taken seriously only that his theological proposition was directly against the existing dogmas of the Christian church.

            On the idea of pneumatology, another ideas presented at the council of Nicaea was an upshot of the debate concerning Arius proposition that the Jesus Christ was a creation of God and therefore subordinate to the Father. Although the idea was not as controversial as that of Arius Christology, the Nicaea Council accepted the idea of the deity Holy Spirit. McDonnell (2003) remarked “Nicaea’s inclusion of the Holy Spirit was no innovation. Historically the Spirit had been consistently, though not always, placed on the divine side of God (p. 124). The main idea however of the inclusion of the Holy Spirit in the Nicaea agenda was it’s relation with the Father and with the Son. In Arius theological ideas, God the Father was supreme, Jesus Christ was subordinate with him and the Holy Spirit is subordinate to Christ and the Father. Whereas, in Athanasius’ idea, both the Son and the Holy Spirit was co-equal with the Father, and they are called persons of God forming the mystery of the Triune God.  The Nicaea council’s decision to accept Athanasius ideas on the one hand and to reject Arius on the other hand, was a well deliberated decision on the issues because it was obviously based on the clear teachings of the Christian church. There are many biblical passages indicating Christ’s relationship with the Father and the Holy Spirit claiming equality among the three. Jesus Christ at some portion of the Bible claimed that “He and the Father are one.” Even the distinguished apostle Paul claimed that Jesus was equal with God, but in his great intention to save humanity from the consequence of their sins, “he emptied himself and took on human likeness” (Philippians 2). John says “he dwelt and lived among us.” Arius idea therefore was rightly judged by the Council of Nicaea as heretical idea.

            The idea of Jesus as the Son of God however, presents a theological problem. If Jesus Christ was both God and man, was Mary also the mother of God since in the Apostle creed, or the verdict of the Council on Arian-Athanasian controversy recognizes that Mary gave birth to Jesus Christ? However, the issue of Christ conception was clearly addressed by the Council that Christ was “Conceived by the Holy Ghost” (Apostle’s Creed). The idea therefore of Christ’s deity and equality with the Father was biblical and was affirmed by the Council.

Conclusion

            The Council of Nicaea was convened primarily to resolve the theological dispute between Arius and Athanasius on the issue of Christ divinity. Its most famous achievement was the formulation of the Apostle’s creed which was in response to the growing crises regarding the teachings of the Christian Church. Although there may have been other ideas that were deliberated by the bishops during that historic gathering yet the dominating ideas were the issues raised by Arius. Many things has been said and done on these issues but what has been very significant was that, that meeting solidifies the Christian doctrine against heretical teachings that were abounding during the succeeding centuries in the life of the church. The Nicaea Council has indeed achieved a very important decision for the church.

Reference

Barnes, T. (2001) Athanasius and Constantius USA:  Harvard University Press.

Hauerwas, S. (2007) The Blackwell Companion to Christian Ethics USA: Blackwell Publishing.

McDonnell, K. (2003). The Other Hand of God: The Holy Spirit as the Universal Touch and

Goal. USA: Liturgical Press.

McGonigle, T.D. & Quigley, J. F. (1988) A History of the Christian Tradition: From its Jewish

Origins to the Reformation USA: Paulist Press

[Solved] the contributions of eleanor roosevelt

The Contributions of Eleanor Roosevelt

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born in New York City on October 11, 1884. She was one of America’s great reforming leaders who had a sustained impact on national policy toward youth, blacks, women, the poor, and the United Nations. As the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, she was one of the most active First Ladies as well as an important public personality in her own right.

When Eleanor Roosevelt traveled to New York City a week after her husband’s funeral in April 1945, a host of reporters were waiting at the door of her Washington Square apartment. “The story is over,” she said simply, assuming that her words and opinions would no longer be of interest once her husband was dead and she was no longer First Lady. She could not have been more mistaken. As the years passed, Eleanor Roosevelt’s influence and stature continued to grow. Today, she remains a powerful inspiration to leaders in both the civil rights and women’s movements.

Eleanor shattered the ceremonial mold in which the role of the First Lady had traditionally been fashioned, and reshaped it around her own skills and her deep commitment to social reform. She gave a voice to people who did not have access to power. She was the first woman to speak in front of a national convention, to write a syndicated column, to earn money as a lecturer, to be a radio commentator and to hold regular press conferences.

The path to this unique position of power had not been easy. The only daughter of an alcoholic father and a beautiful but aloof mother who was openly disappointed by Eleanor’s lack of a pretty face, Eleanor was plagued by insecurity and shyness. An early marriage to her handsome fifth cousin, Franklin Roosevelt, increased her insecurity and took away her one source of confidence: her work in a New York City settlement house. “For 10 years, I was always just getting over having a baby or about to have another one,” she later lamented, “so my occupations were considerably restricted.”

But 13 years after her marriage, and after bearing six children, Eleanor resumed the search for her identity. The voyage began with a shock: the discovery in 1918 of love letters revealing that Franklin was involved with Lucy Mercer. “The bottom dropped out of my own particular world,” she later said. “I faced myself, my surroundings, my world, honestly for the first time.” There was talk of divorce, but when Franklin promised never to see Lucy again, the marriage continued. For Eleanor a new path had opened, a possibility of standing apart from Franklin. No longer would she define herself solely in terms of his wants and needs. A new relationship was forged, but on terms wholly different from the old.

She turned her energies to a variety of reformist organizations, joining a circle of post suffrage feminists dedicated to the abolition of child labor, the establishment of a minimum wage and the passage of legislation to protect workers. In the process she discovered that she had talents-for public speaking, for organizing, for articulating social problems. She formed an extraordinary constellation of lifelong female friends, who helped to ease the worry of an enduring sense of loneliness. When Franklin was paralyzed by polio in 1921, her political activism became an even more vital force. She became Franklin’s” eyes and ears,” traveling the country gathering the grass-roots knowledge he needed to understand the people he governed.

They made an exceptional team. She was more earnest, less devious, less patient, less fun, more compromisingly moral; he possessed the more trustworthy political talent, the more finely tuned sense of timing, the better feel for the citizenry, the smarter understanding of how to get things done. But they were linked by indissoluble bonds. Together they mobilized the American people to effect enduring changes in the political and social landscape of the nation.

Dealing with programs in the South, she was stunned to find that blacks were being systematically discriminated against at every turn. Citing statistics to back up her story, she would interrupt her husband at any time, barging into his cocktail hour when he wanted only to relax, cross-examining him at dinner, handing him memos to read late at night. But her confrontational style compelled him to sign a series of Executive Orders barring discrimination in the administration of various New Deal projects. From that point on, African Americans’ share in the New Deal work projects expanded, and Eleanor’s independent legacy began to grow.

She understood, for instance, the importance of symbolism in fighting discrimination. In 1938, while attending the Southern Conference for Human Welfare in Birmingham, Ala., she refused to abide by a segregation ordinance that required her to sit in the white section of the auditorium, apart from her black friends. The following year, she publicly resigned from the Daughters of the American Revolution after it barred the black singer Marian Anderson from its auditorium.

During World War II, Eleanor remained an uncompromising voice on civil rights, insisting that America could not fight racism abroad while tolerating it at home. Progress was slow, but her continuing intervention led to broadened opportunities for blacks in the factories and shipyards at home and in the armed forces overseas. Eleanor’s positions on civil rights were far in advance of her time: 10 years before the Supreme Court rejected the “separate but equal” doctrine, Eleanor argued that equal facilities were not enough: “The basic fact of segregation, which warps and twists the lives of our Negro population, is itself discriminatory.”

There were other warps and twists that caught her eye. Long before the contemporary women’s movement provided ideological arguments for women’s rights; Eleanor instinctively challenged institutions that failed to provide equal opportunity for women. As First Lady, she held more than 300 press conferences that she cleverly restricted to women journalists, knowing that news organizations all over the country would be forced to hire their first female reporter in order to have access to the First Lady.

Through her speeches and her columns, she provided a powerful voice in the campaign to recruit women workers to the factories during the war. “If I were of debutante age, I would go into a factory, where I could learn a skill and be useful,” Eleanor told young women, cautioning them against marrying too hastily before they had a chance to expand their horizons. She was instrumental in securing the first government funds ever allotted for the building of child-care centers. And when women workers were unceremoniously fired as the war came to an end, she fought to stem the tide. She argued on principle that everyone who wanted to work had a right to be productive, and she railed against the closing of the child-care centers as a shortsighted response to a fundamental social need. What the women workers needed, she said, was the courage to ask for their rights with a loud voice.

For her own part, she never let the intense criticism that she encountered silence her. “If I worried about mudslinging, I would have been dead long ago.” Yet she insisted that she was not a feminist. She did not believe, she maintained, “women should be judged, when it comes to appointing them or electing them, purely because they are women.” She wanted to see the country “get away from considering a man or woman from the point of view of religion, color or sex.”

But the story of her life-her insistence on her right to an identity of her own apart from her husband and her family, her constant struggle against depression and insecurity, her ability to turn her vulnerabilities into strengths provides an enduring example of a feminist who transcended the dictates of her times to become one of the century’s most powerful and effective advocates for social justice.

Truly, Eleanor Roosevelt was a great woman ahead of her time in the fight for human justice. Even today, with doors opened and presumed equal rights supposedly exist, some leaders are afraid or refuse to speak out against injustice. Yet, during a time when one’s life could have possibly been on the line, Eleanor, in a god-like spirit spurred on, battling for human rights.

Bibliography

Cook, B. W. Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume 1, 1884-1933 (1992)

Hoff-Wilson, J.and Lightman, M., eds., Without Precedent (1984)

Lash, J. P. Eleanor and Franklin (1971) and Eleanor (1972 repr. 1985)

Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States. NewYork: HarperCollins
1980.

[Solved] the contrast between wwi and wwii

2 SEP 2002THE CONTRAST BETWEEN WWI AND WWIIThe First World War and Second World War have many similarities as well as differences. The similarities are the obvious of engaging many nations to stop the threat of Germany in both wars. The main difference was the goal of what was being fought for. The Germans in the First World War were looking to gain control of the trade routes of the sea and a rivalry with England. The Second World War was a battle against the fascist party of the Nazi Germans, and against the Japanese empire, which was expanding to possibly meet the Germans.

There were also differences in strategies. The First World War was started out as a offensive tactic by the Germans that overtook Belgium and then threatened to go into France, but was quickly turned to a defensive strategy after the death of Schlieffen. The Second World War was more than a border conflict or nation take-over, it was a regional takeover by Germany and Japan that involved nations throughout Europe and Asia. The scale of conflict was on a much larger level during World War II. The one outstanding strategy or tactic that was used by the Japanese was the use of the kamikaze pilots.

The differences in technology are the greatest. During the First World War inventions like poisonous gas shells, tanks, and aircraft were very primitive; but the Second World War produced well built tanks, both land and amphibious, aircraft for bombing, reconnaissance, and fighting. Ships were also being equipped with radars during the Second World War. Other technological developments were the amphibious landing which encompassed the entire spectrum of the battlefield: Air, Sea, and Land. During World War II, the helicopter was also introduced and was manly used for medical missions. The biggest technological advance was demonstrated at the end of World War II with the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. During the First World War the majority of fighting was either on land or at sea. Aircraft were used, but were very limited. The Second World War used a combination of Sea Vessels, Aircraft, and Infantry to overcome both the Nazi Germans and the Imperialist Japanese. The fighting tactics of the guerrilla fighting tactics of the Japanese differed from the Germans more traditional battlefield array in both World Wars.

The main conflict between the allied forces during World War I was the problem of working together. The British and French argued for control and both of them wanted to control the United States once it entered into the conflict. The Second World War was fought with the allied forces working together and combining forces without hesitation in order to defeat the evil threats of the world. The combined firepower of the all allied forces is what leads to the Free World winning the outcome of the War.

[Solved] the craigslist killer

In America there are numerous killers that have shocked the nation, but one killer in particular had the world completely dumbfounded. It was the ‘Craigslist Killer’ who would have many people asking questions and wondering why a soon to be graduate from medical school would commit such evil acts. With graduation right around the corner and wedding plans to make with his fiance, he seemed to have the world at his feet. So who is the ‘Craigslist Killer’? Philip Markoff, also known as the ‘Craigslist Killer’, was born February 12, 1986.

He grew up in Sherrill, New York, outside of Syracuse. He was the son of a dentist and of an educator-turned casino worker. Markoff attended Vernon-Sherrill Central School, where he was on the bowling team, history club and youth court and also a part of the National Honor Society. After high school, Markoff enrolled at the University of Albany, also acknowledged as SUNY, and graduated with a bachelor’s degree in biology. At SUNY he met pre-med student Megan McAllister while volunteering at a nearby medical center emergency room (Source 1).

McAllister was a senior and Markoff was a sophomore when the two started dating in 2005 (Source 1). Three years later Markoff proposed to McAllister during a romantic carriage ride in Connecticut in May 2008 (Source 5). Their wedding service was to be at Long Island, New Jersey, on a beach with a wedding party of 19 containing two ring-bearers and three flower girls on August 14, 2009 (Source 4). Little did McAllister know that a few months before her dream wedding, her then fiance would be nicknamed the ‘Craigslist Killer’ and be convicted of multiple assaults and murder.

Craigslist is a centralized network of online communities, featuring free online classified advertisements with sections devoted to jobs, housing, and personals, for sale, services, community, gigs, resumes, and discussion forums. Markoff’s obvious favorite advertisements where those in the erotic category. The erotic services categories are one of the 100 categories on Craigslist, which accounts for 1% of ads. Some say the erotic category is the largest source of prostitution and pornography in America.

Craigslist is where Markoff soon began to find his victims to terrorize and pursue. He would post inappropriate pictures of himself and look for women, some rumor to say males too, around the area to meet him for what could be massages or lap dances. He would have the individuals meet him at hotels and there he would assault them (Source 6). Markoff thought he was smart and get away for what he did but soon he would be caught. Markoff’s first victim was Tricia Leffler, a 29 year old Las Vegas woman who was fleeing from that city’s crackdown on vice.

Tricia went to Craigslist online and placed an ad in the erotic categories section as an escort, with her ad headline as “Sweet Blonde” and claims that she started getting phone calls right away. Markoff would be one of those responding to the add (Source 7). April 10, 2009 is the night Tricia would be face to face with the young, good looking man at the Westin Copley Place Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts that she met on Craigslist. Once the door was closed, Markoff pulled out a very destructive looking gun and pointed it at Leffler. He told her “If you do everything you’re asked, no harms gonna to come to you.

Lay down, put your hands behind your back” according to Leffler. When he started to walk towards her, he put the gun back in his pocket. He knelt down with one knew in between her legs and grabbed $800 cash that she had on her and put it in his own pocket. He also took her credit and debit cards while he made no attempt to disguise his face, but he was quick to getting his phone number off of her cell phone. Markoff then picked up a pair of Leffler’s underwear from the floor and put them in his pocket and proceeded to walk around the hotel room as if he were looking for something.

He lead Leffler to the bathroom where he tied her up to the doorknob with zip ties and cut three pieces of duct tape with a knife in his pocket to tape over her mouth. With the knife he also cut the phone lines in the hotel room. Leffler noticed that although Markoff had gloves with him, he had yet to put the gloves on, meaning that his fingerprints were all over the tape he had used on her. He soon then exited the room and left Leffler there tied up. Leffler waited a while then freed herself from the zip ties and went to her neighbor’s room and asked them to call security, that she had just been robbed at gunpoint.

Boston police soon arrived at the hotel and immediately started questioning Leffler (Source 7). Just four days after Markoff attacked Leffler, he was on the prowl again, but this time it would in end murder. His next victim would be Julissa Brisman, a masseuse and former call girl that Markoff met at the Copley Marriot hotel in Boston, Massachusetts on April 14, 2009 at 10:00 p. m. (Source 1). Thirteen minutes later police discovered Brisman in the doorway of her room after receiving reports of a disturbance.

Brisman was found unconscious with multiple gun wounds; one in particular was to the heart (Source 4). She was transferred to Boston Medical Center and was pronounced dead, causes were because of multiple injuries (Source 1). Brisman was just a 26-year-old young lady doing her best battling alcoholism. The Boston police soon realized how seriously dangerous the ‘Craigslist Killer’ really was (Source 4). Shortly after Brisman’s murder another assault was reported, matching the same description of a man of her murder, 60 miles away in Warwick, Rhode Island.

On April 16, 2009, just two days after Brisman was declared dead, Markoff would already find a new victim. The victim, who would be kept nameless, was a 26-year-old nightclub dancer that advertised private lap dances on Craigslist. Markoff met the dancer at a hotel in Rhode Island (unknown) and bounded her with plastic cord attempting to rob her at gunpoint, but he would be put to a stop when the dancer’s husband heard loud ruction and entered the hotel room and chased Markoff away (Source 4).

The Boston police needed to put this man to a stop before another dupe would be in danger. On April 15, 2009 first victim, Tricia Leffler, was contacted by the Boston police department urging her to talk to them about something important. They arrived at Leffler’s apartment with a photograph of Markoff that was taken by the Copley Marriot hotel security camera. Leffler was quick to identify Markoff when seeing the photograph. The Boston police immediately realized they had a prime suspect now (Source 7).

Markoff was under police surveillance for several days before he was arrested during a traffic stop south of Boston, just five days after being identified by Leffler. It appears that Markoff and fiancee, Megan McAllister, were headed to Foxwoods resort and casino on Connecticut with thousands of dollars in cash. Even though he had no previous criminal record, Markoff was accused of kidnapping, armed robbery and first degree murder on April 20, 2009 (Source 1). After Markoff’s arrest the investigation began. Investigators were able to urn the tables on the suspect by using some of the same techniques he used to target his own victims. Investigators revealed records of calls Markoff made and e-mails he had sent to his victims that he regularly would use from his apartment in Quincy, south of Boston (Source 4). They also found in Markoff’s apartment a semi-automatic weapon inside a hollowed-out copy of the medical textbook, Grey’s Anatomy of the Human Body, restraints, duct tape (Source 1), swiped panties and plastic handcuffs (Source 3).

With Everything the investigators dug up, police now had a preliminary match between a handgun found in Markoff’s apartment and the one to use kill Julissa Brisman, a match between Markoff’s fingerprints and prints found on duct tape and plastic restraints at crime scenes and a positive ID from Tricia Leffler who he had allegedly been robbed by Markoff on April 10, 2009 (Source 5). In result of Philip Markoff’s arrest, Craigslist would no longer accept postings to the erotic category and it would shortly be removed right after.

They would now charge $10 postings to be in the adult category and once approved, they can be reposted for $5. The controversies of the erotic category lead people to think that it was nothing but prostitution over the internet. Attorneys from the north met with Craigslist officials to put an end to ads for illegal sexual activities. In Craigslist terms of service and agreement, it states they have a moral and legal responsibility in its commitments to the public’s safety, now they would have to follow their words (Source 6).

There would be a big twist in the unraveling story of Philip Markoff. An ‘almost’ victim of Markoff appeared on NBC’s Today show on April 27, 2009. Unlike his usual sufferers, this one was an adolescent man that claims Markoff had made contact with him by responding to a bulletin board for a man seeking transsexuals. The young man pleas that Markoff would send him post-arrest and sexually inappropriate pictures while they were communicating through Craigslist. Markoff would plead not guilty, but wouldn’t make it to the end of his trial (Source 5).

Philip Markoff would take his life by his own hands on August 15, 2010; it would be exactly a day after what would have been the one-year of his cancelled wedding anniversary (Source 1). When arriving at the scene, officials found the words “Megan” (who was his ex fiance) and “pocket” scrawled in his blood on the wall of his jail cell. The evidence that was collected suggested that Markoff killed himself by cutting his body multiple times with a makeshift scalpel made up from a pen and a piece of metal. He inflicted numerous punctures on his neck, wrist, arms and ankles that caused him to hit several veins and the carotid artery in his neck.

Given the wounds on his body, his death was projected as a suicide. A clear plastic bag was fastened around his neck with a piece of gauze as well as another one that was attached to his feet. The autopsy declared Markoff’s death to be the result in suffocation and great amounts of blood loss (Source 2). Maybe Markoff took his own life because of the guilt he had in his himself. Markoff never explained his reasons to be why he would assault women with such violence and rage and seem to get pleasure from doing so.

Some people speculate that he had a desire to control women with violence and attack them when they are weak, almost as if he were trying to be a dominator (Source 8). Others insist that he incurred gambling debts that he couldn’t pay and he would rob women to try to scoop us some money. Also, it was reported in court that Markoff disclosed that he had unpaid student loans leading up to $130,000 that caused him to be in debt. Weather his motive was because of the pleasure he got from having control of women, or the need to have money to pay off his debts, no one will really know the truth (Source 5).

In conclusion, Philip Markoff seemed to be an intelligent, wealthy and blessed man, but deep down he was a murderer and assaulter of young women in New Jersey and Rhode Island. He was a soon to be doctor-turned-killer and his actions would leave America in shock and having people question, can you really judge a person by looking at them. Markoff is a prime example that even if someone looks perfectly fine on the outside, something on the inside could be completely terrifying. Philip Markoff was a young man, who appeared to have his life headed to a bright future, but something in him was evil and he was created into the ‘Craigslist Killer’.

[Solved] the contribution of informatics

Using a social network nowadays is something that has become a part of our every day activities, a part of our every day life. Surveys carried out around the world show that the number of people who use a social network is increasing on daily basis. It has become very easy to share one’s ideas, opinions, beliefs and interests via the social networks. Communication with friends and relatives on distance through chatting boxes and e-mails can keep us updated with the latest events, news and photographs.

Going online by a single click of the mouse and at a touch of the screen on the mobile phone owes a lot to the development of Informatics. The study that combines the behaviour and the interaction of computing systems and the transformation of an information is called Informatics. In the age of information, computing technology is changing the ways we work and play. Informatics is even changing the way we think. The development made in the field of Informatics for the past fifty years, has led to the formation of the social networks, used by people of all ages everywhere around the world.

The first contribution of the Informatics for the development of the social networks is seen in the availability for everyone to have a personal computer at home. If we go back only fifteen years ago, we will find out that the personal computers were very expensive and only a small number of people could afford buying them. Nowadays, when there are a lot of different companies producing computer hardware and software, people are left with a choice to buy what do they exactly need, what do they really like and finally to make a decision of which brand to buy.

Having a computer or computers in each home makes the use of a social network a part of peoples’ every day activities. After having carried all the everyday duties, people can relax in the comfort of their homes in front of their own computers, chat with their friends, share and comment on photos and discuss the latest happenings around the world. The second contribution of the Informatics becomes clearly visible in the thing that all the computer programmes used nowadays are simpler than they used to be before. There are no more things such as dull “if… then” commands.

We give the commands to the computer by scrolling the button on the mouse up and down the screen and confirm from our keyboards or by clicking on icons which have already been prepared for us. Information Technology specialists have simplified the tools, the icons, the options and the menus, thus making significant improvement to the look and the way all the programmes are used and applied. Working on a computer has become very easy and quick. These simplified things were also applied to the Internet by the creation of a large number of search engines and websites.

They give an opportunity to the user to search easily for any kind of information and choose which website to trust or not. If we need to search for an information, we simply type one or two key words and the information appears on our screens in a fraction of a second. The social networks function in the way that, once you’ve registered, you can search for people by typing their names and surnames. Soon their personal information such as education, hobbies and interests and photos become available to you.

A person can make groups of people who can see a particular information and share things only among them by choosing that option. Finally, the third contribution of the Informatics refers to the creation and use of the new and improved version of the computers, the lap top computers. They can be taken around everywhere because they are lightweight, portable and they don’t take up a lot of space. A lap top could be used practically everywhere, thus providing the user to use the social networks on the move.

While travelling to work or from one city to another, you stay connected with your friends, chat and exchange information, post and change statuses, send messages to the co-workers, even playing games. However, social networks are not only used by ordinary people. They have their own impact on society, too. Companies also use these networks to advertise themselves and tell their customers if there is a new product coming soon or to inform the public about some events to attend or activities taken by them. Therefore the social networks have an impact on society by providing information and updates on daily basis.

Companies send invitations to people to join their activities and its their own choice if they accept these invitations or not. With so many applications, variety of social networks and opportunities to communicate available nowadays, we can find and connect easily to some of our old friends, schoolmates or relatives that we haven’t seen for a long time. It is true that people communicate from the comforts of their own homes, but spending so much time in front of the computer can have its own disadvantages. For example students use these social networks for a rather longer period of the day.

While chatting, they use a number of abbreviations which later they use in their written work at school. Another negative aspect of the constant use of the social networks is socializing. Instead of going out, some people prefer to stay at home and chat with their friends. Primary school students are so addicted to the use of social networks that they have even forgotten to play their favorite outdoor games and do a sport. Whether these social networks will exist for a long time or they will cease to exist in future remains yet to be seen.

[Solved] the contrast of the heian era courtier and the kamakura samurai

The Contrast of the Heian-Era Courtier and the Kamakura Samurai The major periods that shaped Japan’s history and future were the Heian-era of Aristocracy and the Kamakura period of Samurai. The Heian-era and the Kamakura period are interesting because of their differences in social structure, tradition, and culture. In the Heian era, the aristocrat’s social class was sought by many because of their social and cultural status. When the warrior rise in the Kamakura age the social classes change dramatically between aristocrat and warrior. The Heian-era (794-1191) was an age of self development in Japan’s culture and tradition.

Before the Heian-era, Japan modeled China’s civilization because of their advancement in inventions and discoveries. “…Chinese economy had grown spectacularly, and in fields as diverse as rice cultivation, the production of iron and steel, and the printing of books, China’s method of production were highly advanced”( Bedford, 2009). Despite the economic growth China was going through civil wars that threaten Japan’s government stability. As the Tang Dynasty declined Japan turned away from Chinese tradition to develop their aristocratic society.

As a result, Japan revised their former Chinese based government, and this brought about the Heian-era. The Kamakura period (1185-1333) was an age of military control within the government. Toward the end of the Heian-era nobles and imperials desire for power had no bounds. When the disputes between noble and imperials could not be solved through civil means, they sought the aid of warriors to fight their battles. As the governments weaken the warriors took control, and this brought about the rise of samurais also known as Feudal Japan. It is important to understand the social class of the Heian-era before analyzing the aristocratic society.

Naturally the emperor claimed sovereignty over Japan. Government officials, warlords, and Buddhist members’ assisted the emperor in governing provinces and collecting taxes. Noble families like the Fujiwara were the highest members in the court. The Fujiwara family power did not exceed the imperial family but they manage to influence the emperor through marriage. The Fujiwara women would marry a member from the imperial family and produce imperial sons. The aristocrats were the next powerful group within Japan. The aristocrats were assigned many ranks, and the highest ranking was most often reserved for the emperor as an advisor.

The rank of these nobles depended on their family/clan. The Fujiwara had to earn imperial prestige through marriage. Although some aristocrats’ class was stronger than other collectively, they processed noble prestige. The Buddhist clerks were the next powerful group. When, the emperors and nobility retire from their duties they sought positions in the Buddhist temples as monks. The Buddhist monasteries also possessed their own army of warriors which helped carried out government affairs. With the combine influence of the nobility and military the Buddhist exercised their influence.

The warriors who will eventually become the samurais were the least powerful. The warriors consisted mostly of farmers who had lost their land because to heavy taxes imposed by governors. The warriors would form a clan together and rebel against the government. The imperial and nobles thought of the warriors as barbaric and often look down on their martial art. In the 11th century Kamakura samurai period the social structure suffered dramatic change due to power struggle among the noble class. During the Heian era three main clans struggled for control of the government, they were the Taira, Fujiwara, and Minamoto.

The Fujiwara family who was very much in control of the imperial family was losing their influence. The women in the Fujiwara family could not produce anymore sons for the imperial family which caused a separation in bloodline. The emperor regained control of his throne and appointed the next emperor that was his son. Family feuding between the Minamoto and Taira families over the next emperor had warriors to battle over the dispute. In 1159, Kiyomori of the Taira clan was victorious over the Minamoto clan. Kiyomori murdered all the adults of the Monamoto clan and forced the children into exile.

The emperor rewarded Kiyomori victory by giving him an advisor position in the government. This event was significant because Kiyomori was the first warrior in Japan’s government. Like the Fujiwara family, Kiyomori desired a royal bloodline within the Taira clan. So the Taira clan consorted with the imperial family in efforts to secure an imperial bloodline. Later, Kiyomori obtain a higher government position and more importantly a grandson was born and is heir to the throne. Feeling cheated an imperial prince sought the exiled Minamoto to overthrow the Taria clan.

In 1180, Yoritomo of the Minamoto clan formed an army and battled with Taira clan that is known as the Genpei War. Eventually, Kiyomori died and the Taria clan shortly declined after him. During these battles warriors ran amok pillaging the Japan’s cuntryside. To end the chaos and violence the imperial turned to Yoritomo. Yoritomo in return raise an army of samurais and took complete control of the government and transformed it into a military government. The Kamakura government consisted of the emperor, shogun, and the house men. The emperor served merely as a figurehead, he little to no control of his government.

The shogun had complete control of the government and he appointed house men to govern the providence. The house men were once peasants and famers who gained their status through battles as samurais. The customs, traditions, and values of the aristocrats during the Heian-era were dissimilar to Kamakura period. The aristocrats lived in a world of charm and glamour, where appearance was highly value. Through paintings and literature we are able to study the aristocrats’ thoughts and ideas of beauty. The women at that time considered white teeth ugly and they would occasionally blacken their teeth. Gleaming white teeth were thought to be horribly ghoul-like, so they were darkened” (Miller, 2006, p. 21).

Court women during that time also had long lavish hair that was almost capable of touching the ground. The men and women were plump and had fair skin. Plump and pale appearances of the aristocrats were seen as a sign of wealth and beauty. “…women and men whitened their faces with a variety of substances: a powder made from rice, a liquid made from the seeds of the jalap plant, or white lead mixed with some type of starchy substance” (Miller 2006, p. 4). The aristocrats though the human figure was distasteful and regarded it as unattractive. They sought layers of clothes to enhance the beauty of the human figure. The Heian age is generally known for the aristocratic women who contributed to literature, art, and society. In the early stages of the Heian period women were actively involved in the government and serve vital roles as officials. According to Adolphson, Kamens, and Matsumoto 2007, these women served as communication between the court council and emperor or empress.

In the eighth century, the female officials lessened as imperial family numbers increased. Eventually, official women completely lost their place in government and were replaced by men. “Rather, the female officials, who formerly held responsibilities in the administrative apparatus of the state, came to be replaced by male secretaries known as kurodo…” (Adolphson, Kamens, and Matsumoto 2007, p. 22). Changes in gender inequality continued to change as well; men and women were no longer seen as equals. The men took complete control of the court responsibilities.

Without responsibility, aristocratic women sought the glamorous court life of beauty, literature, and art. These noble women explored the world of poetry and literature. One novel in particular, The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is known as the first novel written and it continues to influence the world today. Women were also encouraged to partake in more graceful activities like practicing calligraphy or playing musical instruments like the koto. Writing poems and literature of the court life was permissible. The aristocratic men consisted of a small group, whose purpose was to serve the imperial family.

The aristocrats were protected by the court and did not have to concern themselves with civil battles, cost of living and daily chores. An aristocrat’s appearance and reputation is his life. “Political disgrace, rumor of personal misconduct, decline in family prestige, and even exile lay in wait for them” (Schalow, 2007, p. 2). Not all the aristocrats served in the court and those who did were most fortunate. The aristocratic women could not study Chinese literature because this privilege was reserved for noble men. The noble women were only allowed to study Japanese literature.

The aristocrats always sought the court favor to refine his or her status. “To be in favor at court was to be granted “human” status, and to suffer disfavor negated a courtier’s fundamental worth” (Schalow, 2007, p. 35). Although the aristocrats’ desired further control, movement through the ranks was nearly impossible because of the rise of the Fujiwara family within the court, as a result the aristocrat maintained his current rank. Aristocrats would write poems and other various literatures to relieve court life frustrations. Court life setback had aristocrats seeking romances in the court in hope to increase their status.

The customs, traditions, and values of the Kamakura samurai were different from the aristocrats. In the Kamakura age the samurai is a warrior of nobility unlike the Heian period. In the Heian period the court thought the warriors were barbaric and a nuisance to society. Some of the warrior family would rebel against the government unfair practices. Now the samurai seized the power from the court to establish a military government. Eventually reading and writing became a necessity for samurais to know and understand. “After the 11th century, Samurai were expected to be cultured and literate.

Samurai lived up to the ancient saying “Bun Bu Ryo Do” or “The pen and the sword in accord “(MI Marketing Pty Ltd. ACN, 2001). The samurai leadership desire to instill military and literate education as an example for the future samurais. Marriages among samurais were arranged because of the lack of time. Samurais were constantly involved in battles and didn’t have the time to properly charm a woman. The katana is the samurai weapon of choice. “Bushido taught that a samurai’s soul was his katana, and sometimes a samurai was pictures as entirely dependent on the katana when fighting” (New World Encyclopedia, 2008).

The katana was considered a sacred weapon and it never left the samurai’s side. The longbow was also an effective range weapon used by samurais. Zen teachings enlightened the samurai way of thinking. The teachings allowed the samurai to be at peace mentally even if the body is curly suffering physical pain. The samurai women responsibility was limited to tending the household and her children. Confucian teaching required women to be submissive to their husbands and dedicated to their household. The women were trained in various weapons to defend the household when the men were away.

Although women were not involved in the government, they were encouraged to further their education. The Heian aristocrat and Kamakura samurai were different in many aspects of their life. In the Heian period the aristocratic society obsession with beauty and power led to devious behavior within the court. While the court struggled for power the commoners were neglected and the governors remained unchecked. The Kamakura period valued military might and loyalty to the Shogun. The samurai’s honor was more important than his life.

References

Adolphson, M. S., Kamens, E., & Matsumoto, S. (2007). Heian Japan, Centers and Peripheries. Honolulu, Hawaii: Honolulu University of Hawaii Press. Bedford /St Martin’s (2009). World History and Western Civilization. Miller, L. (2006). Beauty Up: Exploring Contemporary Japanese Body Aesthetics. Berkeley, California: Berkeley University of California Press. MI Marketing Pty Ltd. ACN. (2001). Japanese Lifestyle. Retrieved from http://www.japaneselifestyle.com.au/culture/samurai_history.html Samurai.(2008, April 4). New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23:58, April 27, 2011 from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Samurai?oldid=687639. Schalow, P. G. (2007). Poetics of Courtly Male Friendship in Heian Japan. Honolulu, Hawaii: Honolulu University of Hawaii Press.

[Solved] the controversial practice of circumcision

Circumcision in this context is male circumcision and this refers to the removal of the foreskin from the male genital, penis. Many societies especially the African societies have been practicing circumcision for a long time and it is mainly done during the puberty age. In many societies it is done during adolescence or puberty as rite of passage to mark maturity form childhood to adulthood. In this discussion female circumcision is not included as it is not only controversial but has also cost many countries a lot of money as they attempt to fight this vice that is a nightmare to the girl child.

Circumcision in the U.S began back in the 1900s when infant circumcision was allowed on basis of an argument that by removing the foreskin chances of harboring bacteria and other microorganisms that cause diseases were greatly reduced. The initial argument by many medical practitioners was that circumcision would prevent masturbation. It was also believed that circumcision would to large extent prevent sexually transmitted diseases like syphilis(Williams, 2003).

Among various religions circumcision is most in common in Islamic and Jewish faith. This normally takes place at a very tender age when a child is born. Both the Islam and Jewish faith derive this custom from their religious books that recommend circumcision. Although circumcision was not common in many counties in the past with time the practice has become prevalent among many societies. However though many people have slowly come to accept the practice there are some ethical issues that have arisen that have made circumcision to be controversial. Those opposed to the practice argue that circumcising an infant derives tem of their right of autonomy and the right to choose what they want with their bodies. In essence therefore it is seen as a violation of human rights.

It has also been argues that there needs to be consent on the person on whom circumcision is done. It is therefore argued that circumcision of infants should be done away with as they are not given as chance to decline or consent to the practice. Williams, 2003). argues that circumcision is a direct reflection of the society’s insensitivity to the pain subject to men while undergoing the practice and suggest that it should be abolished.

Despite that fact that the British Medical Association has accepted the practice as a medical one some researchers argue that the practice of circumcision is a torture to the brain and encodes it with violence and other negative effects making it not suitable a practice for infants. A law was passed in the year 2001 in Sweden requiring that only registered medical practitioners carry out the operation and that even anesthesia be used to ensure that the pain experienced by a patient.

In conclusion it is clear that as much the practice of circumcision is controversial and has its fair share of blame it also has its benefits which apparently outweigh the shortcomings.

Reference:

William, J. (2003). Circumcision. Mc Graw, London

[Solved] the continuous stirred tank reactor

The continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) model is used to estimate the key unit operation variables when using a continuous agitated-tank reactor to reach a specified output. The mathematical model works for all fluids: liquids, gases, and slurries.

Operating a stirred-tank reactor with continuous-flow reactants and products (CSTR) has some advantages over batch operation. The reactor can operate 24 hours a day for weeks at a times. The CSTR is an easily constructed, versatile and cheap reactor, which allows simple catalyst charging and replacement. Its well-mixed nature permits straightforward control over the temperature and pH of the reaction and the supply or removal of gases (Harriott, 2003).

By using a continuous agitated-tank reactor in or der to obatain a particular output, the Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) model is used to measure the key unit operation variables. The mathematical model works for all fluids: liquids, gases, and slurries. Morevoer, operating a stirred-tank reactor with continuous-flow reactants and products (CSTR) carries some advantages over batch operation. It is to be noted that the reactor can continuously operate for the full span of 24 hours a day for weeks without stopping.

The CSTR is an easily constructed, all-purpose, and cheap reactor. The CSTR allows simple catalyst charging and replacement. Its well-mixed nature allows uncomplicated control of the reaction and the provision or elimination of gases over the temperature and pH (Harriott, 2003). Figure AAA shows the schematic diagram of CSTR.

Reactant were continuous pumped in at an inlet port, usually at a constant rate. The reactor was vigorously stirred to ensure good mixing. The reactant solution pumped in pushed out an equal volume of the solution.In Figure AAA is displayed diagram of CSTR with a sequence.

In an inlet port, 1regularly at a constant rate the reactants were continuously propelled. Good mixing was prioritized so the reactor was vigorously stirred. As a result, the reactant solution that was driven in shoved out an equal volume of the solution With CSTR, under normal operating conditions the overall volumetric flow rate of feed streams equals to the flow rate of effluent stream, Q. In order to maintain sufficient oxidant, the oil/water ratio were set at 1:1 (v/v) with in the vessel.

The volumetric flow rates of organic stream and aqueous H2O2 are the same and should be equal to 0.5Q. The total sulfur concentration in the feed stream is CAO. Since the reactor is perfectly mixed, within the volume V the concentration of OSCs is uniform and equal to the exit concentration, CA.

It allows that the reaction rate is also uniform through the reactor and is a function of CA, r(CA). The material balance equation can be written as:(5.1)The overall volumetric flow rate of feed streams with CSTR (which was observed under normal order of operation) equals to the flow rate of effluent torrent, Q. In the vessel, to maintain adequate oxidant, the ration of oil/water was set at 1:1 (v/v).

The volumetric flow rates of organic stream and aqueous H2O2 are the same and are required to be equal to 0.5Q. The total sulfur concentration in the feed stream is CAO. As the reactor is flawlessly mixed, in consequence, the volume V the concentration of OSCs is uniformed and is equivalent to the exit concentration, CA.

It results in the observation that the reaction rate is also coherent through the reactor and is a function of CA, r(CA). Henceforth, the material balance equation can be written as: The item on the left-hand side of Equation 5.1 is the accumulation rate of OSCs in the reactor. The first two items on the right-hand side of Equation 5.

1 are the mass flow rate of OSCs entering and leaving the reactor, respectively. The difference between them is the new mass flow rate into the reactor. The last item on the right-hand side of Equation 5.1 is the disappearing rate of OSCs due to the oxidation reaction in the system.

The accumulation rate of OSCs in the reactor, on the left-hand side of Equation 5.1, is the accumulation rate of OSCs in the reactor. Similarly, the first two items on the right-hand side of Equation 5.1 present the mass flow rate of OSCs which are respectively going into and flowing out of the reactor.

The difference found between these items is the new mass flow rate into the reactor. The last item on the right-hand side of Equation 5.1 is the disappearing rate of OSCs which takes place owing to the oxidation reaction in the system. Since design is often based on the steady-state operation for which accumulation rate is zero, the Equation 5.

1 becomesDue to the observation that the design in generally based keeping in view the steady state of an operation, for which the rate of accumulation becomes zero, the Equation, as such, reads(5.2)As discussed in chapter, the pseudo-first-order kinetics for oxidation of OSCs has been established in a batch process. Therefore, r(CA) = -kCA, substituting into Equation 5.2 gives(5.

3)As has already been discussed in the Chapter, here, in a batch process, the pseudo-first-order kinetics for oxidation of OSCs has been instituted. Henceforth, r(CA) = -kCA, substituting into Equation 5.2 reads Equation 5.3 can be rearranged to obtain the fractional conversion, fs(5.

4)Equation 5.3 (as shown) may be reorganized in order to obtain the fractional conversion, fs: For CSTR, the mean residence time and space time are equal, and t= V/Q. Therefore, Equation 5.4 becomes(5.

5)The mean residence time and space time come to be at par with each other for CSTR, and t= V/Q. Therefore, Equation 5.4 reads: Equation 5.5 indicate that with known value of rate constant, K, and a chosen space time, t, we would be able to predict the oxidation conversion of OSCs, fs and evaluate the performance of the continuous modified UAOD system.

In Equation 5.5, it is shown that with known value of rate constant, K, and a chosen space time, t, it would be proficient to predict the oxidation conversion of OSCs, fs and calculate the performance of the continuous modified UAOD system.Just as the reaction time, t, is the natural performance measure for a batch reactor, so are the space-time and space velocity the proper performance measures of flow reactors. These terms are defined as follows by equation 5.

6 and 5.7.In correspondence to the reaction time, t, which is the natural performance quantify for a batch reactor, the space-time and space velocity are the proper performance measures of flow reactors. In Equation 5.

6 and 5.7, define these terms.Space-time: Time required to process one reactor volume of feed measured at specified conditions.(5.

6)Space-time is the time required to process one reactor volume of feed deliberated at particularly worked out conditions.Space-velocity: Number of reactor volumes of feed at specified conditions which can be treated in unit time.(5.7)Space-velocity is the number of reactor volumes of feed at particularly worked out conditions which can be operated in unit time.

 Now we may arbitrarily select the temperature, pressure, and state at which we choose to measure the volume of material being fed to the reactor. Certainly, then, the value for space-velocity or space-time depends on the condition selected. If they are of the stream entering the reactor, the reaction between s and ? and the other pertinent variables is shown by equation 5.8(5.

8)  The temperature, pressure, and state at which it is selected to measure the volume of material (being fed to the reactor) may now be arbitrarily chosen. Without doubt, then, the value for space-velocity or space-time relies on the conditions chosen. If these are of the stream flowing into the reactor, the reaction between s and ? and the other pertinent variables is shown in Equation 5.8 Thus, a space-time of 10.

5 min means that every 10.5 minutes one reactor volume (1,000 ml) of feed at specified conditions is being treated by the reactor. Henceforth, a space-time of 10.5 min denotes that each 10.

5 minutes one reactor volume (1,000 ml) of feed on specified conditions is being handled by the reactor. Can you write a paragraph of the following information: (PLEASE: (1) Modified UAOD process, (2) batch type continuous flow reactor is always one ward (is noun)Thus it is the observation by the above discussion of the processes that (1) Modified UAOD process, and (2) batch type continuous flow reactor are always one ward.The oil company request me to have daily production of 20,000 gallon per day with ultra-low sulfur diesel (15 ppm) from Valley oil with initial sulfur concentration 8,100 ppm. In order to lower the total sulfur content of Valley to less than 15 ppm, for each single organic sulfur compounds need to be reach more than 99% oxidized and sulfone can be removed by solvent extraction or alumina adsorption.

It was requested by the oil company to have daily production of 20,000 gallon per day with ultra-low sulfur diesel (15 ppm) from Valley oil with initial sulfur concentration 8,100 ppm. As such, in order to lower the total sulfur content of Valley to less than 15 ppm, for each single organic operation, sulfur compounds need to attain more than 99% oxidized; and sulfur can be removed by solvent extraction or alumina adsorption. In chapter 4, the GC-SCD analysis of Valley oil through modified UAOD process shows that 46DMDBT is one of the most abundant sulfur species in original Valley oil and has sulfur concentration approximately 88 ppm. Therefore 46DMDBT were chosen for reactor design.

The oxidation of 46DMDBT in Valley oil under modified UAOD conditions follows pseudo-first-order kinetic with apparent rate constant of 0.0239 min-1 at 70oC.In chapter 4, the GC-SCD the analysis of Valley oil by modified UAOD process manifests that 46DMDBT is one of the richest sulfur species in original Valley oil and has approximately 88 ppm sulfur absorption. Consequently, 46DMDBT was crafted for reactor design.

The oxidation of 46DMDBT in Valley oil under modified UAOD conditions follows pseudo-first-order kinetic with obvious rate constant of 0.0239 min-1 at 70oC. In order to achieve over 99.9% oxidation of 46DMDBT in Valley oil, the size of batch type continuous flow reactor can be obtained from Equation 5.

4 as, than I can use Equation 5.9 to find out the suitable reactor size.(5.9)In order to obtain over 99.

9% oxidation of 46DMDBT in Valley oil, the size of batch type continuous flow reactor can be acquired from Equation 5.4 and, subsequently, Equation 5.9 can be used to uncover the suitable reactor size. Where:Q = 20,000 gallon/day = 476 barrel/day = 0.

05 m3/minCAO = 8,100 ppm, CA = 15 ppmK (46DMDBT)= 0.0239 min-1Therefore, the volume of the batch type continuous flow reactor is      From previous section, the treatment rate of Valley oil for batch type continuous flow system is 1 kg / 3.3 hours, known as 2.4 gallon per day, reached 99.

8% sulfur removal in 3.3 hours. However, this result is still insufficiency for practical application. In this study, the treatment capacity of Valley oil has been scaled up ten times with 10 kg, and working volume of reactor has been increase to two liter instead of one liter, although the feed rate of has increase to 160 ml / min instead 95.

2 ml /min. The operation conditions of both studies were shows as Table XXX.The treatment rate of Valley oil for batch type continuous flow system, in the previous section, is 1 kg / 3.3 hours (known as 2.

4 gallon per day), reached 99.8% sulfur removal in 3.3 hours. However, this outcome is still inadequate for the practical application.

In the present study, the treatment capacity of Valley oil has been scaled up ten times with 10 kg; similarly, the working volume of the reactor has been increased to 2 liters instead of 1 liter. This is to be noted that the feed rate of has increased to 160 ml / min instead of 95.2 ml /min. Table XXX manifests the operation conditions of both studies.

 ParametersSmall Scale CSTRLarge Scale CSTRValley oil1 kg10 kgSulfur concentration8,100 ppm8,100 ppmHydrogen Peroxide (30%)100 g1000 gRTIL25 g250 gAcid Catalyst (40% TFA)35 g350 gTemperature50oC +/- 5oC50oC +/- 5oCWorking volume of reactor1 L2 LFeed rate95.2 ml/min152 ml/minSpace time10.5 min13.2 minTable YYY shows the result for desulfurization efficiency for large scale treatment, Moreover, results indicate that the desulfurization efficiency was reached 88% in very short time (10 min) and this result is very much similar compare to small scale treatment, this also tell us that increase the treatment volume does not affect much on desulfurization efficiency.

The final sulfur reduction of 10 kg/3.3 hours treatment rate was reached at 99.7% in 3.3 hours, but it did not reach 15 ppm.

Therefore, by reaction for another 30 minutes, the desulfurization can 99.8% with 13 ppm as the final sulfur concentration that is acceptable.In Table YYY are displayed the result for desulfurization efficiency for large scale treatment. Moreover, the results indicate that the desulfurization efficiency was attained up to 88% in a very short period of time (10 min); and this result is very much similar as compared to the small scale treatment.

This observation also indicates that increase in the treatment volume does not highly affect desulfurization efficiency. The final sulfur reduction of 10 kg/3.3 hours treatment rate was reached at 99.7% in 3.

3 hours, but it did not reach 15 ppm. Therefore, by reaction for another 30 minutes, the desulfurization can be 99.8% with 13 ppm as the eventual sulfur concentration which can be acceptable. Time(min)Small scaleDesulfurization(%)Large scaleDesulfurization(%)Conc.

(ppm)Conc. (ppm)08,10008,10001091488.798787.82077990.

480190.13064292.168491.64056493.

062492.36031496.136695.58022797.

226596.61408498.910198.82001599.

82299.72301399.8sSeveral studies indicated that in presence of an excess of H2O2, the oxidation of organic sulfur compounds follows pseudo first order kinetics in carboxylic acid/ H2O2 and polyoxornetalate/ H2O2 systems (Te, et al. 2001; Otsuki, et al.

2000; Collins, et al. 1997). Since H2O2 was present in excess under UAOD condition, the reaction data should be fitted to a first-order rate equation. A plot of ln(Ct /C0) versus reaction time showes as Figure XCV.

The fitting curve displayed a linear relationship that confirmed the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics.Several studies in the available literature inform us that in the presence of an excess of H2O2, the oxidation of organic sulfur compounds follow pseudo first order kinetics in carboxylic acid/ H2O2 and polyoxornetalate/ H2O2 systems (Te, et al. 2001; Otsuki, et al. 2000; Collins, et al.

1997). As H2O2 was at hand in excess under UAOD condition, it is needed for the reaction data to be adjusted to a first-order rate equation. A plot of ln (Ct /C0) versus reaction time is shown in Figure XCV. The fitting curve displays a linear relationship which substantiates the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics.

 Figure XCVThe apparent rate constant for oxidation of Valley oil was determined to be 0.0197 min-1. Compare to the oxidation reaction rate of T (0.0196 min-1), 2MT (0.

0199 min-1), 2ET (0.0224 min-1), BT (0.0276 min-1), 2MBT (0.0223 min-1), DBT (0.

0228-1) and 46DMDBT (0.0231 min-1), it is relatively much lower than these OSCs in batch scale. It is because a complex system as diesel fuels, there exits competitive oxidation among organic sulfur compounds and other unsaturated constituents such as olefinic compounds. Furthermore, the continuous desulfurization unit can not reach as perfect operation conditions as batch scale.

This result is very important and can be applied to evaluate the performance of modified UAOD process on diesel fuels as well as to enhance the capacity of continuous desulfurization unit.As the diesel fuels are complex systems, there exits competitive oxidation among organic sulfur compounds and other unsaturated constituents, such as olefinic compounds. Furthermore, the continuous desulfurization unit cannot reach up to as ideal operation conditions as batch scale. This result is a very important step in the process and can be applied to calculate both the performance of modified UAOD process on diesel fuels and to improve the capacity of continuous desulfurization unit.

 For the quality and quantity purpose and performance, multiple reactors can be scaled up to connect in either series of parallel. In this study, the high sulfur reduction of Valley oil (99.8%) was successfully demonstrated by a single batch type continuous flow reactor at treatment rate of 3.03 kg / hour.

Therefore, quantity purpose and performance, two or more reactors can be connected in parallel to reach high desulfurization efficiency (99.8%) with higher treatment rate which reaches the basic requirement of commercial scale.With the purpose and performance of the qualitative and quantitative paradigm, multiple reactors can be scaled up to connect in either series or parallel structure. In the present study, the high sulfur reduction of Valley oil (99.

8%) was successfully displayed by a single batch type continuous flow reactor at treatment rate of 3.03 kg / hour. Hence, for the quantity and performance purpose, two or more reactors can be connected in parallel to reach high desulfurization efficiency (99.8%) with higher treatment rate which also reaches up to the basic requirement of commercial scale.

 Moreover, diesel has a density of 0.827 g/ml, as compared to water with density close to 1 g/ml. The treatment rate at small scale (0.303 kg/hr) is approximately 0.

06 bpd, and the treatment rate at large scale (3.03 kg/hr) is approximately 0.6 bpd. The batch type continuous flow system has demonstrated the feasibility of large scale operation even in a relatively small installation with low capital investment and maintenance cost.

In addition to the above, as compared to water density close to 1 g/ml, diesel has a density of 0.827 g/ml. treatment rate at small scale (0.303 kg/hr) is approximately 0.

06 bpd, and the treatment rate at large scale (3.03 kg/hr) is approximately 0.6 bpd. Consequently, the batch type continuous flow system has demonstrated the practicability of large scale operation even in a relatively small installation with low capital investment and maintenance cost. 

[Solved] the consequences of using discontinued operations

From the Case survey given, we found the extra issues that synchronize with the discontinued operations. The another issues arise is, most of directors in current state of affairs pull off their earning by utilizing the discontinued operations. How, Why and What the effects by making so are will be explained and lucubrate in inside informations as the below paragraphs:

When doing firm-valuation determinations, investors place a higher value on points of income expected to be determined in the hereafter. To help investors doing rating determinations, GAAP by and large requires that stuff nonrecurring points be individually disclosed in the fiscal statements. However, the separation of net income into repeating and non-recurring constituents besides gives directors the chance to misdirect investors, by misclassifying income and expense points. For illustration, a director want to increase steadfast rating can misclassify repeating disbursals as non-recurring, deceptive investors as to the finding of the income addition. In the accounting literature this type of net incomes direction is called categorization switching Classification switching involves describing grosss, disbursals, additions and losingss on different lines on the income statements than they should decently look under GAAP, for case, apportioning operating disbursals to stop operations. Directors engage in this signifier of net incomes direction most likely because investors value repeating net incomes more than non-recurring net incomes.

From the old research, McVay ( 2006 ) discusses two grounds why categorization switching been choose by directors to pull off their net incomes, First, non like accrual direction or

existent activity use, there is no & A ; acirc ; ˆ?settling-up & A ; acirc ; ˆA? in the hereafter for past net incomes direction. If a director decides to increase net incomes utilizing positive ( income increasing ) accumulations, at some point in the hereafter these accumulations must change by reversal. The reversal of these accumulations reduces future reported net incomes. If a director decides to increase net incomes by pull offing existent activities, such as cut downing research and development outgos, this may take to fewer income bring forthing undertakings and decreased net incomes in the hereafter. In contrast, categorization switching involves merely describing repeating disbursals in a non-recurring categorization on the income statement, holding no deductions for future net incomes. Second, because categorization shifting does non alter net income, it is potentially capable to less review by hearers and regulators than signifiers of net incomes direction that alteration net income ( Nelson, Elliot, and Tarply, 2002 ) .

Categorization switching utilizing discontinued operations involves two managerial

determinations. The first is the determination to stop the operations, while the 2nd is to

displacement runing disbursals to this categorization. In other words, research workers believe the two determinations are independent of each other. Base on the research workers belief on the undermentioned findings generated: First, discontinued operations are an of import existent activity determination necessitating board of manager blessing. as a consequence, the director needs forceful economic grounds to do a instance to the board. Second, because discontinued operations are a existent activity determination, the company will incur existent disbursals disposing of the operation. The company will pay disbursals such as separation wage, assessment fees, legal fees, and other disbursals, from the hard currency flows of go oning operations. Third, there may be a possibility of betterment in the operating consequences of the discontinued operation. If so, the director will be merchandising future net incomes to increase current period net incomes.

From the research done by Abhijit Barua, Steve Lin and Andrew M. Sbaraglia ( 2009 ) found there are the positive association between income-decreasing discontinued operations and unexpected nucleus net incomes in the twelvemonth a house reports discontinued operations, a consequence consistent with directors switching operating disbursals to stop operations, Together, these consequences provide grounds that directors shift nucleus disbursals to stop operations to increase core net incomes. Consequences besides show that the grade of categorization switching utilizing a discontinued operation has declined after the debut of FASB ( Statement No. 144 ) . Two

accounts for this determination are been found, First, FASB ( Statement No. 144 ) broadened the definition of discontinued operations by replacing the concern section demand under Accounting Principles Board ( APB ) Opinion No. 30 with the constituent of an entity construct. This allowed houses to describe smaller plus temperaments as discontinued operations, increasing the coverage frequence. In add-on, leting smaller plus temperaments to measure up as discontinued operations, potentially cut downing the sum of operating disbursals that can be shifted to the temperament. Second, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was enacted around the same clip as FASB ( Statement No. 144 ) and may hold led to a lessening in categorization switching due to increased ordinance and misinterpretation.

In decisions, accounting intervention for discontinued operations is besides a planetary accounting

issue. Similar to APB 30, IFRS 5, Non-current Assets Held-for-sale and Discontinued

Operationss, defines a discontinued operation as a separate major line of concern or

geographical country of operations. IFRS 5 besides requires elaborate revelation of gross,

disbursals, pre-tax net income or loss, and the related income revenue enhancement disbursal, either in the notes or

on the face of the income statement. Presently, both the FASB and the IASB are working

toward a unite accounting definition and intervention for discontinued operations, with

both boards publishing proposals amending FASB ( Statement No. 144 ) and IFRS 5, severally, hopefully the concluding determinations by FASB and IASB will profit the investors, analysts, hearers and regulators by alarming them to the possible net incomes direction utilizing categorizations switching when a steadfast study discontinued operations.