[Solved] the cone snail is an amazing creature

Cone Snail Venom Samantha McCoy COM/156 January 15, 2012 Gretchen Taylor Cone Snail Venom The Cone Snail is an amazing creature. After more than 20 years of research, a Filipino scientist has discovered that this sea dweller may hold the key to some of the world’s most critical diseases. With years of research and countless hours of studies, could the solutions to many of the world’s most painful and debilitating illnesses lay inside the venom of a deadly, yet beautiful multicolored sea snail measuring fewer than 9 inches in length?

Cone Snail Venom is now the treatment for chronic pain relief and is available to comfort those who get no relief from conventional medications. In the discovery of the Cone Snail, Dr. Baldomero Olivera never would have guessed it would lead to such a medical breakthrough in modern medicine. At an early age, growing up in the Philippines, Olivera had a strong fascination with the stunning snail. After graduating from Sanford University, he returned to his home country, with the same allure for those snails.

Upon his return, he began researching the Cone Snail, with a desperate need to know why this snail could kill so many people. Through his research he found that the Cone Snail was so lethal because of the over 100 different toxins found in its venom. Olivera later returned to the U. S. taking a job as a professor at the University of Utah. With a team of scientists, he continued his research. He extracted the venom from the snails, found in the tropical reefs of the Philippine waters. Using the venom, he examined each component.

With the help of lab rats, Olivera and his group tested the different toxins, noting that each one, within the venomous mixture caused a different reaction in the rats. The discoveries made knocked the medical world on its ear! For the findings made by Dr. Olivera and his team, he decided to use his first language, Filipino, to name his results. One component he named “Conantukin” because it caused a lab mouse to fall asleep. Conantukin is now used to treat epilepsy. Another component found was named “Contulakin” because it caused a mouse to thrust bout. Contulakin is used to treat incurable pain. During the many years of Dr. Olivera’s research he also discovered that Cone Snail venom was extremely lethal. However, it could also be used as an antidote against itself. This venom, if stung by the snail could be 1,000 times more powerful than a deadly dose of Morphine. With more than 100 different components in a single Cone Snail, each toxin can mean the possibility of a new potential drug. According to National Geographic News (2009), scientists have studied less than one percent of them [toxins].

These creatures may very well hold the cures to some of our most deadly diseases. Obtaining the venom from a Cone Snail can be utterly disastrous. A small handful of scientists prefer to “milk” the snails, using the same method a person would use to get venom from a snake. This form of extraction can be extremely dangerous and potential deadly if not conducted in the proper manner. Jon-Paul Bingham, a biochemist at Clarkson University in Potsdam, New York, and also a member of Olivera’s research team, is the leading scientist in Cone Snail milking.

Bingham states, “The reason for “milking” is because the Cone Snail is on the verge of becoming extinct” Philippine News (2007). This is because of losing much of the coral reefs, found in warm tropical waters. These reefs happen to be the natural habitat for the Cone Snail. Without them, the population of the snails is quickly diminishing. As another member of Olivera’s team, Eric Chivian, founder and director of the Center for Health and the Global Environment at Harvard University, has stated that 26% of the coral reefs are damaged beyond repair, while 30-50% is in seriously bad shape Washington Post (2004). Milking” the Cone Snail, allows scientists to use fewer snails for their research by keeping what snails they do use, alive. Many other scientists choose to simply dissect dead Cone Snails found on the shores or floating in the waters. They cut into the venom duct by removing the harpoon like needle to extract the venom from the venom bulb. To help with the depleting of the snails, many of the same scientists will raise snails of their own to use for their research. Because of the research conducted on these snails, scientists have now found the next generation of pain relief.

Prialt or Primary Alternative to Morphine is the end result of over 20 years of research and one of the many new medications that were developed from the venom of Cone Snail. It was approved by the FDA to use in the United States on December 28th, 2004. This medication cannot be given orally however due to the toxins that can cause damage to the heart and other vital organs. Prialt is given by injection, directly into the fluid in the spinal canal, using a pain pump. This method allows the medication to travel straight to the brain and bypass all internal organs.

This medication is also not habit forming therefore no addictions can develop. There are many severe side effects to Prialt, if the dosage is not correct. These side effects may include: memory problems, double vision, fever, headaches, chills, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, and seizures, sensitively to light, depression, and hallucinations. Other, less severe, side effects are: diarrhea, constipation, loss of appetite, stomach pain, loss of balance, and urinating less than normal. These side effects may become bothersome but should go away with time.

However, if a person has a family history of psychological or mental problems, they should not take this medication. This drug is used to treat people with chronic to severe pain that do not or cannot get relief from normal narcotics. These include patients that have cancer, AIDS, CRPS/RSD, and other neuropathic diseases. This medication should be used as a last resort because it is so high potentate. The manufacturer of this medicine, Elan Corp. located in Ireland, is hoping that will change.

However, Robert Myer, Director of the FDA’s Office of Drug Evaluation II, has stated that he believes Prialt will not become a household name in the pharmaceutical industry Food and Drug Administration (2004). As written in the Washington Post (2004), Elan’s President of Global Research, Lars Ekman, said as many as 100,000 people in the U. S. might be helped by this drug. This drug has become an exciting new breakthrough in the medical field. Pill form of the medication failed FDA approval, at the same time the injectable form was passed. The pill form of Prialt is too dangerous to be used.

During the studies conducted by Elan Corporation, the pill was not safe for the rats, therefore would not be safe for human use. However, the corporation has not given up hope that one day they will develop a pill that is safe to use. Since this medication is not recommend for everyone, a person should speak to their doctor about all medications, prescription and over-the-counter that they are taking. Any medication that causes drowsiness such as sleeping pills, cold and allergy medicines, narcotics, muscle relaxers, or medication for depression, anxiety, or seizures can increase the effect of Prialt.

Also, let the doctor know if any types of diuretic such as Lasik or Furosemide are being taken. Even some over-the-counter (OTC) medicines like vitamins, herbal supplements, and sleep-aids can interact with Prialt. A person must always inform any doctor they see that they are taking Prialt; this is for safety and health reasons. Before being allowed to use Prialt, a patient must undergo a psychiatric evaluation by a licensed psychiatrist. This stipulation comes from the FDA. It is a way that our Food and Drug Administration can ensure the health and well-being of those taking this medication.

Cone Snail Venom is not a drug everyone can use. However, if given to the right patients, it can mean the ability to walk again and live a normal life. Because of the scientists that have put so much time and effort into the research of this captivating creature, our world is now looking at a breakthrough in pain management. The magnificent Cone Snail, though deadly if stung, can hold the key to many of the illnesses that plague the human body. The stunning and fascinating snail has the ability to turn the science community upside-down with the numerous secrets it holds within its shell.

References FDA. (2004, April). USA Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from http://www. fda. gov/ Kaufman, M. (2004, December 29). New Drug Is Approved To Treat Chronic Pain. Retrieved from http://washingtonpost. com Kaufman, M. (2004, December 29). Sea Snail venom paves way for potent new painkiller. Retrieved from http://washingtonpost. com Roach, J. (July 14, 2005). Toxic Snail Venoms Yielding New Painkillers, Drugs. National Geographic New. Retrieved from http://news. nationalgeographic. com/news/2005/06/0614_050614_snaildrugs. html

[Solved] the connection between the little mermaid and hoarding

The Little Mermaid and her Connection with Hoarding Melissa Legault Abnormal Psychology Anthony Smith April 30, 2013 Most children grow up watching Disney movies. It might be shocking to hear that a Disney princess may suffer from a psychological disorder. In Walt Disney’s movie The Little Mermaid, I think the main character Ariel suffers from disposophbia, also known as hoarding. Obsessive-compulsive disorder/hoarding has always interested me. These people take collecting to an unhealthy level. Ariel is the perfect example of a Hoarder. Hoarding is not currently considered an illness on its own right.

Compulsive hoarding has been treated as symptom or subtype of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (Cluttergone). About 15% of people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder report compulsive hoarding as their major problem. It usually will begin in childhood and may go unnoticed until adulthood (Kelly). The DSM-IV lists Compulsive Hoarding only as a symptom of OCD. The DSM-IV does not list hoarding behavior in the diagnostic criterion of OCD. However with the DSM-V, soon to be out, hoarding disorder or compulsive hoarding is expected to be defined as its disorder rather than being a symptom of OCD (Cluttergone).

The Little Mermaid is based on the fairytale by Hans Christian Andersen. The Little Mermaid is the story about a mermaid named Ariel who longs to be part of the human world. She lives in an underwater kingdom with her father King Triton. She falls in love with a human, Prince Eric and, by making a dangerous risk with the sea witch Ursula, she trades in her fins and her voice for human legs. Ariel has but three days to make Eric fall in love with her. If he does, she will live happily ever after in his world. If he doesn’t, Ursula will enslave her.

During the movie Ariel and her best fish friend Flounder love to collect human artifacts. This is where the hoarding comes into play. In the beginning of the movie, Ariel is searching through a sunken boat for anything she can find. She collects lots of random things without really knowing what any of it is. “This box is where I keep my toenail clippings and hairballs. ” This quote from the movie supports my reasoning for her unnecessary collection of useless things. As the movie goes on you can see her huge collection of useless gadgets and other random things.

She clearly has no intent in getting rid of any of it. In a few years she collects a huge amount of junk and stores it where nobody else can find it. In the book Stuff: Compulsive Hoarding and the Meaning of Things, the difference between just collecting and hoarding is that, “When people collect things, they typically want to display them to other people…. Hoarders want to keep things hidden because of the shame they have (Frost). ” She creates an emotional attachment to every object she finds, which is another common problem among hoarders. They will find sentimentality in random, worthless items.

Ariel’s hoarding also interferes with her normal life. She ditches her father by hunting for trash instead of going to a concert she promised to attend. One of the main side effects of disposophobia is obsessing over the collection at the expense of daily obligations. The word hoarding was originally used to describe the behavior of animals storing food for future use, and then moved into use as a descriptor of human behavior. There are also different types of hoarders. These include Clinical compulsive hoarding, OCD or perfectionist hoarding, animal hoarding, and Diogenes syndrome.

Clinical compulsive hoarding is the most common type, while Diogenes syndrome is very rare. Diogenes syndrome is a disorder of self-neglect that is associated with severe personality disorders, most common in the elderly. Most of the research carried out on compulsive hoarding is around the relationship between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and hoarding. New research has raised doubts about the OCD connection. Researchers have learned that while some hoarding behaviors would respond to OCD treatments, some will not (Cluttergone) This is what I believe Ariel’s case to be.

I do not think she suffers from both Obsessive Compulsive disorder and hoarding. Not much is understood about the causes of hoarding, which is thought to affect over a million Americans. Compulsive hoarders may have a difficult time getting rid of objects because they are anxious they will need them in the future, feel the items have sentimental value or do not want to be wasteful. Most people that suffer from hoarding often can’t sit in their living rooms, sleep in their bedrooms or cook in their kitchens.

Many have a narrow path from room to room in their homes to navigate through the clutter. It may be very difficult to find a valuable item in all the mess. There many safety hazards, such as tripping over piles, or the danger of fire with stacks of papers all over the house. The people who live in houses with excessive clutter are at risk of more health problems from the excess amount of dust, mildew and fungus that can be caused by the disorder (Wilson). As you can see Ariel is a prime example of a hoarder.

Her unhealthy habits go unlooked to most people, but when you really look at the bigger picture, she is a collector of useless junk. References Cluttergone ((n. d. )). Retrieved from http://www. compulsive-hoarding. org/Definition. html Frost, Randy O. Steketee, Gail. (2010) Stuff :compulsive hoarding and the meaning of things Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Kelly, P. D. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://ocd. about. com/od/glossary/g/Hoarding. htm Wilson, E. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. alternet. org/story/111030/how_compulsive_hoarding_can_threaten_your_health_and_take_over_your_life

[Solved] the conjurer made off with the dish

How would you compare the life of the poor Egyptian boy in ‘The Conjurer Made off with the Dish’ with that of a poor boy living in a metropolitan city like Karachi? “The day was passing and soon mysterious darkness would descend”. This is how Naguib Mahfouz’s story ends. A short story filled with a lifetime of experiences that perhaps every poor boy in an urban city faces. Experiences of violence, sex, power struggle, poverty, failure, love, hard choices are what make this story of a young boy in Egypt easily comparable to a young boy anywhere, example in my city, Karachi.

The story starts showing how the weaker is oppressed by the stronger; the concept of power struggle is seen throughout the story. Mother, bean-seller, conjurer all take on aggressive roles towards the boy, threatening him in various ways, “Scram, or I will make you into food for snakes”, turning him into a weak afraid creature. This aggressiveness is widely experienced by poor boys in Karachi in the same manner. Reports of violence on street children are very common and yet a blind eye is turned towards them.

Like all young children, this boy too gets lost and distracted in the magical world and for a moment forgets all his troubles. “However I gave no thought to the loss…forgot the fear of what threatened me back home”. He is suddenly made to grow up from this innocent world when he accidently comes across a man beating a woman profusely. He is made to let go off his childhood in that one instant and protect himself from the harsh and cruel world that awaits him.

Something that young boys experience in various ways in Karachi, having to work when they should be playing or studying is one way of losing their childhood. Finding themselves attracted to girls and indulging in activities and feelings they should not be is another way. What the boy in the story also experiences is how the darkness inside him grows. Tired of being abused and pushed around he hurls his dish at the bean-seller. This shows as a society we manage to push these innocent children towards a life or perhaps crime and regret.

[Solved] the cone gatherers

In Robin Jenkins “The Cone Gatherers” we follow the malicious character of Duror who goes through an internal battle to try and control his hatred for deformities. Duror’s mental deterioration is caused by the hunchback, Calum’s, presence, Calum is in Duror’s forest as be has been sent with his brother Neil to collect cones, which leads to the inevitable dramatic ending to the novel. The central theme throughout the novel is ‘Good versus Evil’ and how they have to co-exist in order to keep a balance between one another.

Jenkins use of interesting and descriptive detail helps to convey the development of Duror’s evil character. During the opening chapters of the novel we are introduced to the malicious character of Duror. He has an obsessive hatred for Calum unlike everyone else in the estate that cannot help but feel sympathy for the cone gatherers: “Since childhood Duror had been repelled by anything living that had an imperfection or deformity… ” This clearly portrays how Duror’s inner hatred of deformities comes from when he a boy and since then he has kept these feelings repressed and hidden.

However, the presence of Calum being in the forest means that Duror’s disgust for imperfections grows which then leads to the tragic events throughout the novel. The reader is clearly able to see how evil Duror can be which helps the reader understand the central theme of the novel: the interdependence of good and evil. The people who are around Duror are able to perceive that he is not quite right but are not yet fully aware of his evil state of mind. While Duror is walking home from the forest he is met by Dr Matheson who offers him a lift and tries to make small talk with Duror: “… ere twisting and coiling there like the snakes of damnation … there could not be victory. ” The religious imagery used here is very effective as it gives connotations of the evil and twisted thoughts lurking around in Duror’s mind, the source of Duror’s inner conflict. Dr Matheson cannot fully comprehend what is going through Duror’s mind which makes him unable to help Duror. The word choice of “victory” has connotations of Duror’s inner battle with his emotions.

Also the reference to “victory” and the fact that Duror will never have any foreshadows the tragic events that will happen during the novel. The reader is able to see that the evil inner thoughts of Duror and the fact that he tries to repress these emotions help us to understand more about his character. Duror’s emotional struggle is conveyed through his relationship with his wife, Peggy. After coming in from the forest he is confronted by Mrs Lochie who dislikes Duror as she believes he doesn’t treat her daughter the way he should: “… hat love itself could become paralysed. ” This is an ironic statement as Peggy is the one who is physically paralysed however Duror is the one is emotionally and mentally paralysed. It also conveys the intensity of Duror’s hatred as it affects his closest family. Duror’s lack of desire for his obese wife because of his hatred of deformities makes the reader see him as the vindictive and evil character he is. Duror’s inner instability becomes clear during the key incident of the deer drive.

During the deer drive a deer is wounded, Calum throws himself upon the wounded deer with sympathy when Duror emerges from the forest wanting to kill the deer: “He seemed to be laughing in some kind of berserk joy. ” These actions of Duror, slitting the deer’s throat then remaining beside the deer show his complete loss of control because of the hate he has been trying to hide. The reader is also made aware of the extreme hate Duror has for Peggy as he imagines Peggy is the deer he is attacking.

This image of Duror laughing allows the reader to be able to comprehend the evil that is within Duror which highlights the theme of good versus evil. Also because of Calum’s goodness, wanting to comfort the deer we are clearly able to see the effective theme of the co-existence of good and evil. Duror’s hatred for Calum is conveyed through his lies he tells about the cone gatherer. Duror attempts to lie to Lady Runcie Campbell about a doll which he claims Calum stole from the beach hut: “… he had begun to utter quietly, hoarsely, and with an undercurrent of pleading, the most loathsome accusations against the little cone gatherer. This shows Duror loss of control at trying to contain his evil emotions forcing him to lie about Calum. By suggesting hideous and sordid actions of Calum, he tries to convince Lady Runcie Campbell he is not suited for the wood. At this point Lady Runcie Campbell is forced to accept that Duror is mentally unstable. Also the word-choice of “little” gives connotations of the child-like innocence and goodness of Calum conveying to the reader the theme of good versus evil. Duror’s malicious character ultimately brings the novel to its tragic climax.

Lady Runcie Campbell goes to Scour Point to seek the help of the cone gatherers but she arrives too late as she hears a gunshot knowing Duror has murdered Calum. She then sees Duror walking away from the scene: “He was walking away among the pine trees with so infinite a desolation in his every step that it was this memory of him, … which was to torment her sleep for months. ” Lady Runcie Campbell who has experienced the horror and emptiness lurking inside Duror is now witness to the climax of his instability.

Duror’s murder of Calum leaves him feeling empty, it’s an emptiness of emotion and an emptiness of humanity leaving Duror as only a hollow person because without his hate for Calum , he has nothing to live for. With Duror unable to go back and unable to move forward he commits suicide. This tragic ending to the book clearly displays to the reader the central theme of the novel, that when good versus evil they co-exist to balance each other conveyed by the sacrifice of Calum which leads to the death of Duror changing the lives of people within the wood.

[Solved] the concept of the afterlife is incoherent

This is traditionally a Christian concept, and the scatological belief entails that God will raise the dead back o life at the end Of time on Judgment Day, where he will decide the fate Of all individual humans – whether one should go to the eternal Kingdom of God from which sinners will be excluded – based on their morality during their earthly existence. Therefore, to Christians, the notion of an afterlife should be coherent as it is consistent with their beliefs.

For example, SST Paul argued that since Jesus was resurrected, Christians should also hope to go through the same experience; and that due to God having the role of creator, humans would believe that he is able to make human bodies perfect in the afterlife, as he has created many types of bodies in nature, within our current reality. It is also derived from Biblical passages, such as Ezekiel 37, where God shows Ezekiel a valley of dry bones and states that he will be able to ‘make these live again’.

However, there are also other philosophers who find the idea of a bodily resurrection incoherent, as resurrection is a difficult idea to justify rationally and philosophically, and can be more easily claimed as an article of faith. For example, David Jenkins interpreted Jesus’ resurrection to have a deeper significance, rather than taking it literally at face value – “it is not a conjuring trick with bones”. It is also ambiguous what an resurrected body would look like due to the overwhelming amount of interpretations.

Early Christians believed that resurrection was some sort of transformation, whilst SST Paul describes a ‘spiritual body. Hence, this idea of the afterlife will not be persuasive or coherent to non-believers, as they are based on scripture alone with no empirical evidence. Despite being a materialist and a monist, Hick attempted to maintain the ‘unity of body and soul’ in a psycho-physical unity, and still believed that life after death is coherent and logically possible, through the replica theory.

This was a thought experience to defend his notion of bodily resurrection, to show that it is a divine action where an exact replica is created in a different place. He uses an analogy Of a man going missing in London and reappearing in New York, and that the replica of the original He distinguishes the difference tenet the person in the afterlife being a replica, and not a copy, as a copy suggests that the object can be infinitely reproduced. Replica implies that there is only one version.

Even though he uses the term ‘replica’, which in ordinary terms implies an exact copy or model, he specifically uses the quotation marks to imply that he uses the term in a different way – as he believes that the body is perfected by God, he also believes that there is only one copy of an individual. Hick uses the work ‘replica’ because he believes hat a person can only exist in one place and time, as our identities are unique. Hence, our replica is the real person, as part of being a human is having an individuality, which would be undermined if there were a multiple copies of ourselves in the afterlife.

Many would argue that the human body is the source of flaws and limitations, which would mean that the afterlife may be better off consisting of non-material souls, with the body being discarded as unimportant in comparison. This is called an disembodied existence, where the body is temporary and the soul is eternal. The philosophical view hat the soul/mind exists separately from the body is called dualism. Dualism is the belief that body and soul and the mind are separate entities.

Plato presents arguments for the immortality of the soul- the cyclical argument, which deems that everything comes into existence from its opposite (e. G. Awake and asleep, dead and alive), which makes the cycle of birth and death coherent; and the recollection argument, where Plato believed that the knowledge we acquire is not learned, but recollected or remembered from the realm of forms before coming into the body, using the example of a slave ay who has no education, but can grasp complex mathematical concepts.

The belief that we can survive without a body is also advocated by Richard Sinecure, as he draws a line between thoughts and actions, suggesting that consciousness can exist independently of the body. He also claims that surviving outside the body is a logical concept – because we can imagine it, it is possible (l know, I know). He also says that our use of language points to body and soul being separate; we say ‘l have a body’, not ‘l am a body’. However, Brian Davies criticizes Sinecure’s view as incoherent, because just cause we imagine something does not mean it is therefore possible.

[Solved] the concept and theories of infinity

The concept of infinity has been evaluated many times throughout history. Only recently, in the nineteenth century, has major progress evolved in the field. The chapter “Beyond Infinity” answers the questions, “what is mathematics and why should I study it? ” by reviewing several mathematician’s theories of infinity.

First, the author mentioned Galileo who theorized that a line which measured 3 inches long contained the same amount of points as a line twice it’s length. The author also referred to Bernhard Bolzano, a mathematician who later on attempted to define infinity as well, but failed to do so.Archamedis was also referred to, for he developed a system for infinity called ‘myriad’. Using this, he was able to estimate the number of grains of sand there are on a beach.

The chapter was focussed on matmatician named Cantor who became well known towards the end of the nineteenth century. Cantor believed that one set of numbers is equivalent to another set if they can be paired together. This was referred to as his “stepping-stone” process. He also used this to define numbers beyond infinity.

Cantor assigned the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, along with a subscript, to represent the number of elements in an “ordinary infinite set”. The first letter (Aleph) with zero for a subscript represented real numbers. Aleph with a numeral one stood for real and irrational numbers. Cantor recognized infinity as a verb, rather than a noun.

This was uncommon, for it contradicted previous Platonic theories. Therefor, many mathematicians’ dismissed his theories at first. Also, he was criticized for not having an “absolute infinity”.Some mathematicians eventually started to accept Cantor’s theories.

He then went on to prove that there are an infinite equal amount of fractions and whole numbers, and that the set of irrational numbers is larger than whole numbers and fractions. Cantor applied his theories to Geometry as well, thus demonstrating that there are the same infinite amounts of points in every space, despite dimensions. He also showed how points on a line can be paired with points on a plane, which can be paired with points in a volume, and so on.Based on the accumulated theories, mathematics is defined as a science that has been evaluated, modified, and added to since the beginning of time.

It includes all types of numbers and objects that are, in turn, applied to other concepts in the “physical world. ” To conclude, it is important to study mathematics in order to understand concepts and things in our lives, and obtain an overall greater understanding. Cantor’s theories are particularly important for, as the author stated, they take us beyond “ordinary infinity”.

[Solved] the concept of critical thinking

Critical thinking is having the ability to think on a higher level. A process for thinking critically is required that will bring about decisions and ideas that will provide for a better life for ourselves and those around us. Most of us take thinking for granted. However, we develop as critical thinkers when we open ourselves to recognizing the strengths and weakness of our own thinking. Higher level thinking comes into play when choosing for example, presidential candidate, or sitting on a jury for a murder trial, or maybe when determining the effects of global warming.

As a critical thinker, we become more responsible, as well as a contributing member of society. For us to be critical thinkers, we need to acquire the attributes of a critical thinker and to learn to be more open minded and recognize our own lack of thought. Critical thinking is a way, style, or movement of thought in which an individual uses to find deeper meanings to everyday events or situations. Critical thinking helps us, and it revolves around sociology, and when asked what is critical thinking is, then sociology plays a role.

To define critical thinking, the phrase must be divided into separate words. The word “critical” can have two meanings. One meaning of “critical” can be vital, and a sense of urgency. You can’t expect to know the unknown, however we still possess an unclear sense of thought. The events have to unfold and unravel on its own. The second part of the word can mean a different aspect. When the thought is centered around our own mind. For example, a movie critic can submit his or her own critic on a movie to a producer, then we might also criticize the producer’s film evaluation on how we judged the film.

The second word “thinking” can be seen as questioning a question. So together critical thinking may be seen as an unknown answer to questioning a question. Critical thinking is also a process of exercising judgment on information gathered from sources before making any conclusion. It is a broad and in-depth analysis that requires a set of skills to process information. It is characterized by rational and logical thinking of an individual or a group to develop a guide to decision making.

Thinking critically follows the scientific method applied by people every day, which involves asking a significant question, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis and gathering the required information, and coming up with a conclusion. Critical thinking is also using our mind for a certain goal, it can be interpreting a case, justifying an opinion, or proving a statement. It is primarily used to develop a guide to decision making. People engage in critical thinking to come up with the most sensible and justifiable conclusion possible that can hold up to the test of rational inv

[Solved] the concept of group polarization

PolarizationPolarization is a tendency to reason only in terms of extremes or opposites. The most common type of polarization is group polarization. Group polarization in general refers to the notion that judgments made by a group tend to be more extreme than judgments made by individual members. The concept of group polarization developed from a notion of the risky shift. It was originally thought that after group discussion, individuals would make riskier decisions than before. However, researchers then realizedtendency could also be to the other extreme; that decisions could shift to a more cautious judgment. Group polarization is an important phenomenon to study because it is relevant to our everyday lives. When people with similar opinions begin to talk about an issue, conflicts can increase because of the intensity of opinions. Group interaction is in our daily lives, thus it is extremely important to understand group polarization in order to understand and avoid dangerous situations. There are three theories that explain this principal: the persuasive arguments theory, the social comparison theory, and the social identity theory. The persuasive arguments theory generally states that group polarization results from an exchange of information, ideas, or facts among group members, thus providing each member more support for his or her position in the form of new ideas and arguments. Group members opinions will change if they are exposed to a variety of different opinions assuming it fits into the persons preexisting opinions and how logical the information represents reality. The social comparison theory generally states that people change their opinions in order to conform to the social norms of the group. This theory compares self with others and a desire for acceptance. If group members find out others have the same opinions, they will usually intensify their views. People want to be socially accepted so they will constantly try to present themselves favorable to others. People do not only want to be accepted, but also want to be perceived more favorable than the other group members. This leads to group members altering opinions to better each other, thus leading to a more positive or negative outcome than would have happened individually. The social identity theory states that there are three steps to group polarization. The first step involves social categorization, this occurs when a person sees him/herself and others into diverse social groups. The second step is after this categorization people determine the characteristic qualities of each group, thus the third step of polarizing and each member adopts the stereotyped attributes of the group. These theories are not in opposition, but rather each theory is more appropriate in certain situations. Today group polarization is very evident in Americas political system. As America becomes more extreme in their beliefs, Republicans and Democrats find it impossible to cooperate with each other. It seems that each party exercises power for their own groups gain while forgetting the American people in which they were elected to serve. Each party creates an opinion in which in order for one party to win the other party has to lose. Group polarization tends to facilitate inter-group competition by driving the Democrats and Republicans against each other instead of working together.

Today polarization is in opposite directions in our two party system, thus eliminating even the possibility of compromise since failure means loss. We are in a group situation on a daily basis whether it is in a classroom, family, team, at work, or a group of friends, groups are key parts of our lives. Thus it is extremely important to understand group polarization and to correct polarization. In order to correct polarization we need to beware of other decisions besides the two extremes. We need to be our own person and learn that middle ground is sometimes best!

[Solved] the concept of pareto efficiency

Intermediate Microeconomics Assignment 6 Question 1. (20 points) Explain the concept of Pareto efficiency. Question 2. (40 points) The Larry Summers Memo Explain the Economic Logic Summers is referring to in the following memo. DATE: December 12, 1991 TO: Distribution FR: Lawrence H. Summers Subject: GEP ‘Dirty’ Industries: Just between you and me, shouldn’t the World Bank be encouraging MORE migration of the dirty industries to the LDCs [Less Developed Countries]? I can think of three reasons: 1) The measurements of the costs of health impairing pollution depends on the foregone earnings from increased morbidity and mortality.

From this point of view a given amount of health impairing pollution should be done in the country with the lowest cost, which will be the country with the lowest wages. I think the economic logic behind dumping a load of toxic waste in the lowest wage country is impeccable and we should face up to that. 2) The costs of pollution are likely to be non-linear as the initial increments of pollution probably have very low cost. I’ve always though that under-populated countries in Africa are vastly UNDER-polluted, their air quality is probably vastly inefficiently low compared to Los Angeles or Mexico City.

Only the lamentable facts that so much pollution is generated by non-tradable industries (transport, electrical generation) and that the unit transport costs of solid waste are so high prevent world welfare enhancing trade in air pollution and waste. 3) The demand for a clean environment for aesthetic and health reasons is likely to have very high income elasticity. The concern over an agent that causes a one in a million change in the odds of prostrate cancer is obviously going to be much higher in a country where people survive to get prostrate cancer than in a country where under 5 mortality is is 200 per thousand.

Also, much of the concern over industrial atmosphere discharge is about visibility impairing particulates. These discharges may have very little direct health impact. Clearly trade in goods that embody aesthetic pollution concerns could be welfare enhancing. While production is mobile the consumption of pretty air is a non-tradable. The problem with the arguments against all of these proposals for more pollution in LDCs (intrinsic rights to certain goods, moral reasons, social concerns, lack of adequate markets, etc. could be turned around and used more or less effectively against every Bank proposal for liberalization. Question 3. (40 points) a) Explain why and how the concept Pareto Efficiency is biased toward the rich. Give an example. b) Explain why and how the concept of Pareto Efficiency is a limited tool for any public policy assessment. For example, are there important dimensions and/or goals of public policies that are not well evaluated using the criteria of Pareto Efficiency?

[Solved] the compromise of 1850

The compromise of 1850 comprised a number of acts, which were passed in 1850. The acts were passed by the United States Congress hoped to settle the strife, which existed between those people who supported slavery Northern parts and those who owned slaves in the southern parts of the United States of America. The compromise of 1850 was a major stepping stone in the history of the United States of America because it contains many forces and provisions. There are many speculations, which are made on how the country would be if the acts were not passed. The compromise of 1850 intended to stop the tension that existed in the between the northern and southern parts over the extended slavery in the Texas which was a new territory that had been gained by the United States of America in the Mexican war. Those people who were from the northern sides supported the compromise. This is because they claimed that the compromise would serve an opportunity to end slavery and reduce the influence of the southerners. However, those people from the southern parts of the country did not support it as they took it as a threat to thee political power, which they enjoyed. This was because the compromise would lead to admission of California in the union leading to equilibrium of the fifteen free and fifteen slave states. The compromise was an opportunity for America to expand its territories without much consideration of what kind of states they were (Rhodes, 2008).

There was the Wilmot Proviso, which was amendment for a bill, which was related to the Mexican war, was supported by people from the northern parts. This is because it hoped to stop slavery from the northern parts and reduce the political power, which people from the south enjoyed. President Taylor was in support of this and proposed the admission of California and New Mexico to be states. This means that there would be two more states in the union. This caused an upset to the southerners. After his death, Millard Fillmore who succeeded him supported the compromise of 1850 completely. Henry clay, Webster Daniel and Stephen Douglas were the ones who led to the passage of the laws that were contained in the compromise. Douglas is credited for proposing that that the provisions be separated into components and a vote be held on each of the component. This is what added to the victory that the compromise gained. The opposition of the laws by the southerners was led by John C. Calhoun.Daniesl Webster plated a great role in making the compromise be accepted by the persuasive speeches which he gave supporting the laws (Hamilton & Holt, 2005).

There are many more provisions which the compromise consisted other than the admission of a state to the union. One of the issues in the compromise, which was hot, was the issue of sovereignty. This is because the issue entailed that the residents were supposed to make their o9wn decision on matters, which pertained to them. Majority of the people supported the idea that the government was supposed to allow the residents of New Mexico and Utah make decisions for themselves whether they wanted to be a free state or a slave state. The other issue was of major concern in the compromise was the fugitive slave act which was urged by Clay. The acts stated that those who owned slaves had the right to capture and make those slaves who had fled to territory. However, the majority felt that the act was not of any help because it would be difficult for many of the slaveholders to incur the cost of a run away slave. The most controversial issue and the most important topic of the compromise of 1850 was whether California would be allowed to join the union of the free states, slave state or whether the decision was supposed to be decided by the popular sovereignty. The provisions were separated into separate votes, which made it possible for the majority to be for the compromise. Then it was signed as law by President Fillmore in 1850 (Waugh, 2003).

Another aspect of compromise of 1850 was the provision of fugitive slave law, which was stringer. The compromise made it illegal not to return a slave who had run away to the south. It also provided that a suspected run away slave would be tried by one judge but not by jury. There was away that the judges were compensated more money by making a decision that a slave was guilty. Therefore, this law acted as one way of discouraging people from harboring slaves. However, the compromise of 1850 was not just a debate, which ensued between, the North and the South but focused more over expansion and touched the issue of slavery. This compromise acted as a test of the strength of the United States of America. It showed that no matter what the circumstances it is possible for a goal to be attained by a common man if there is the desire and persistence (Rhodes, 2008).


Hamilton, H. & Holt, M. (2005) Prologue to conflict: the crisis and compromise of 1850, Kentucky, University Press of Kentucky.

Rhodes, J. (2008) History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850, Volume 1, New York, BiblioBazaar, LLC.

Waugh, J. (2003) On the brink of Civil War: the Compromise of 1850 and how it changed the course of American history, USA, Rowman & Littlefield.