[Solved] st paul of tarsus

St Paul of Tarsus is a significant figure in Christianity due to his major contributions of writings and letters which form a significant amount of the New Testament. St Paul is considered to be the forefather of Christianity after Jesus. Paul had a major impact on these spread of Christianity through his mission journeys, contributing to the religious traditions and helping expand Jesus’ original teachings.

The reason behind Paul being a significant person in Christianity is because he contributed to the development of Christianity. St Paul made an impact upon Christianity as an Apostle, a theologian and as a letter-writer. Out of the 27 books contained in the bible, Paul wrote a total of 13. Paul’s writings made a significant impact on Christianity which was incorporated into the New Testament. In these writings, Paul taught Christian communities about beliefs, lessons, advice and support.

These writings also contained ideas of theology, the Church, salvation, marriage and sexual morality, ‘For by grace you have been saved through faith and that not of you; it is the gift of God’ (Ephesians 2:8). These writings have formed and structured the basis of Christian teaching today. Paul has also made a great influence upon Christian thinking. This influence has been greater than any other New Testament author. Paul’s letters also develop powerful expressions of the human endeavour and relationship with God.

These expressions are represented through Paul’s ideas of faith as a commitment to Christ and as a Baptism symbolising one person’s belonging with Christ. Paul’s letters are persuasive and vital for Christians because they reveal the powerful aspects of Paul’s passion and dedication to his faith. Paul declares in Philippians 3:9-11, ‘I want to know Christ—yes, to know the power of his resurrection and participation in his sufferings, becoming like him in his death, and so, somehow, attaining to the resurrection from the dead. This emphasises his deep connection and passion for God in which he suffered in order to pursue non-believers. In 34CE, Paul’s journey to Damascus was the turning point in the development of Christianity as it is known today. Paul writes in Acts 22:6 that he experienced a vision, ‘I fell to the ground and heard a voice say, “Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me… I am Jesus of Nazareth. ”’ Paul was blinded but continued on to Damascus where he became certain that his vision of Jesus symbolised his calling to spread the Gospel.

When he arrived his sight was restored by a disciple named Ananias and Paul was baptised as he became a Christian, a follower of Jesus. This conversion to Christianity enabled Paul to believe that he had been given a mission to go preach the word of God. Paul embarked on journeys to towns where he would seek employment and gradually get to know people. Paul wanted to influence these people by speaking of his experiences he had with God and what they had taught him about Christianity and the teachings of Jesus.

In these towns, Paul also established local churches and invited elders to run them whilst he was out of town spreading the word of God, ‘Paul and Barnabas appointed elders for them in each church and, with prayer and fasting, committed them to the Lord, in whom they had put their trust’ (Acts 14:23). Three of Paul’s most important journeys in his lifetime took place in 44, 48 and 55 CE. Geographically, this spread Christianity across the Mediterranean into modern day countries such as Cyprus, Turkey, Greece and Italy.

He travelled tens of thousands of miles in order to spread the word of God. This was recorded in Acts 15:41, ‘Syria and Cilicia, strengthening the churches. ’ Paul’s teachings have significantly impacted upon the development of Christianity around the world which has continued to have an extraordinarily large impact upon its position today. The change Paul’s teachings brought and the effect they have had upon Christianity will continue to be embedded into the values and teachings of Christianity for generations to come.

[Solved] st peter canisius essay research paper st

St. Peter Canisius Research Paper St. Peter Canisius Peter Canisius was born in Nijmegen, Holland to a wealthy household in 1521.

His male parent was Jakob Kanijis, an teacher of the princes tribunal in the tribunal of Duke Lorraine. He was a well-thought-of adult male, being appointed nine times as city manager of his native town. ( McGraw-Hill ) Although Peter’s female parent died at an early age, he had a loving step-mother who stressed instruction and raised him to fear God. Although Peter accused himself of blowing his young person, by the clip he was 19, he had already earned a maestro of humanistic disciplines degree at Cologne University.

As a adolescent, Canisius began to happen himself.;Though giving in at first, he resisted his male parent ; # 8217 ; s forcing him to go a attorney and alternatively followed a way of analyzing divinity. ( Thurston and Attwater ) At Cologne, Peter foremost started composing earnestly, something that would tag the singularity of his full calling. Besides, he made familiarities in a circle of devout priests who worked to derive reforms within the Catholic Church.

Soon, after go toing a retreat headed by Peter Faber, one of the first six comrades of Ignatius Loyola, he joined the Society of Jesus. By going a Jesuit, he began the important portion of his life. He rapidly rose the ranks of the Jesuit hierarchy. Within old ages, he became renowned for his cognition of the Bible and his ability to acquire to the Black Marias of people.

Over his calling, he was shuttled from location to location, largely in Germany, antagonizing the Protestant motion which had virtually destroyed the Catholic Church in many countries. He is frequently referred to as the Second;Apostle of Germany. From 1549 to 1580, he established 20 Jesuit colleges all over Europe, all of them marked by excellence and all of them bring forthing strong Catholic political and religious leaders. ( Eliade ) At the nucleus, though, the qualities that made him great were his authorship, his cognition of the Bible, his passive reasoning manner and his work ethic.

Peter Canisius was among the members of the elite when it came to comprehension of religious affairs or anything pertaining to God. He could ; # 8220 ; duke it out ; # 8221 ; with any of the Protestant theologists who were in general far more knowing than the theologists of the Catholic church. He could establish his statements for philosophy on Bible merely every bit good as any Protestant. ( Bentley ) It was non this alone, though, that caused others to follow him into Catholicity.

It was the manner in which his statements were effected.Canisius was austere towards the leaders and propagators of Protestantism but he was soft in his statements. When reasoning for Catholic philosophy, he thought it was of import to non emphasize things the Protestants were leery of such as confession, purgatory and indulgences. Alternatively, ; # 8220 ; their demand, as that of kids, is for milk, and they should be led gently and bit by bit to those tenets about which there is a dispute.

; # 8221 ; He didn ; # 8217 ; t contemn or call on the carpet those who had been born into or drifted towards Protestantism. He felt that they were headed in the incorrect way, but it wasn’t because they were malicious or even because they were cognizant of the way they were traveling. They had simply been misguided. Therefore he felt it was his occupation to demo them the right way that he felt was Catholicism.

This was non an alibi to be discourteous or to call on the carpet. Rather, it was a clip to be soft and polite.( Thurston and Attwater ) Peter’s soft manner of debate led to much success. He revived the Catholic church and sustained it in many countries including Ingolstadt, Vienna, Augsburg, Innsbruck, and Munich.

In all of these topographic points he taught and preached, but was ne’er excessively forceful. This is non to advert the other work he did while on location. He anointed the sick. He visited captives and attended to those who had been struck with the pestilence.

It is estimated that he covered 6,000 stat mis in three old ages on horseback and pes. Peter Canisius was an tireless adult male. He had a work ethic that wouldn & # 8217 ; t quit. He said, & # 8220 ; If you have excessively much to make, with God & # 8217 ; s aid you will happen clip to make it all.

Despite all these accomplishments, the work that Canisius is best known for is his authorship.He was the first Jesuit author. Despite holding written from a reasonably early point in his life, Peter was non the greatest author in the universe. He didn & # 8217 ; t compose anything that was truly new and he didn & # 8217 ; Ts have any literary aspiration but his authorship was still clever.

What makes his plants intriguing is the unheard of degree of understanding that he acquired. His most celebrated Hagiographas were three catechisms, each with their ain particular intent. The first catechism was entitled the Summa Doctrinae Christianae. It contained 213-223 elaborate inquiries and replies about Catholic philosophy.

It was designed as a collection for universities and graduating categories of Jesuit schools. The 2nd catechism was called Summa doctrinae christianae per questiones tradita et ad captum rudiorum accomodata. It asks 59 inquiries on Catholic philosophy and gives short, but concise replies. It was intended to give initial spiritual direction to kids.

The 3rd catechism was entitled Catechismus Minor seu parvus Catechismus Catholicorum. This 3rd catechism includes a elaborate calendar with banquets and saints in add-on to 124 inquiries and short replies. This catechism was intended to be a text edition for secondary Jesuit schools. All of these plants were typical of Peter’s character.

They were detailed, concise and comprehensive.They clearly explained the Catholic church’s positions and were mass produced until the nineteenth century. These catechisms were so helpful to Catholics of the twenty-four hours that they were translated into tonss of linguistic communications. Wholly, there were about 200 editions of the catechisms put out, even while he was alive.

( McGraw-Hill ) By 1591, Peter was making old age. It was in this twelvemonth that he suffered a paralytic ictus. This brought him to the threshold of decease but he managed to retrieve to the point where he could compose once more, with the aid of a secretary. This was the beginning of the terminal, though for Peter Canisius.

He died on December 21, 1597. In 1925, he was canonized. At the same clip he was declared a Doctor of the Church for his catechetical surveies. St.

Peter was an unforgettable figure for the Catholic church in the 1500’s. Through his cognition, prophesying and authorship, he saved Catholicism in Germany. Were it non for him, Catholicism could perchance hold been non-existent throughout much of eastern Europe. His gentle attack to supporting Catholic philosophy was really of import in footings of drawing back Protestants who had been misguided to the Catholic church.

He was a indefatigable adult male to whom the Catholic church will ever be indebted.

[Solved] story of gyges essay research paper in

Narrative Of Gyges Essay, Research Paper

In the narrative of Gyges, Glaucon and Socrates argue. Glaucon feels that justness and virtuousness are non in fact built-in traits in people. He tells a narrative to “ turn out ” that we merely move morally because we do non hold the power to act otherwise. We fear being punished. Without this fright of penalty, a bulk of the people will move unjustly and amorally.

Glaucon tries to exemplify this point by, stating us the narrative of Gyges. Gyges worked as a shepherd for the male monarch of Lydia. A storm and temblor opened up the land where his flock was feeding. Gyges climbed down into a chasm. Inside he saw a bronzy Equus caballus with doors in it. Gyges expressions in through the doors and sees a statue with a aureate ring it. Gyges pulled the ring from it and went back to the field.

As the shepherds gathered to describe to the king about his sheep, Gyges joins them. As he sat and talked he toyed with the ring. As he turned the ferrule of the ring in his thenar he became unseeable to all. They spoke of him as though he was non present. Then he touched the ring once more and turned the ferrule outward and reappeared. Repeating this gave the same consequence. Collet turned inwards he was unseeable and turned outwards he re-materialized. This is when Gyges realizes that with this ring he reasonably much can make whatever he wants excessively. So, he takes advantage of his newfound secret.

As a courier from the shepherds to the tribunal, he took his pleasance and seduced the queen. He conspired with her against her hubby and slayed the male monarch taking control of Lydia.

As told by Glaucon in the old paragraph, I believe a merely individual would move unjustly, if it was to their involvement and they could acquire away with it. For illustration hurrying, the some of us will go at approximately five stat mis per hr above the posted velocity bound. We do this because it is believed that we will non acquire pulled over and have a ticket, therefore we arrive at our finish Oklahoman.

Following, Glaucon imagines that two charming rings exist. A “ merely ” person has one and an unfair individual the other. Glaucon states that even the merely individual will be determined to stay merely and non e

xploit the state of affairs. He believes that in the terminal opportunism and hedonic urges will predominate. The merely will non be able to defy working the advantage by geting whatever they liked in complete safety ; occupying the infinite of others. The merely would be untouchable God-like.

The merely and the unjust will be identical and therefore single morality is determined by necessity non witting will and ethical/moral behaviour for its ain interest. If self-indulgence can be practiced without fright of penalty so the leaning for being unfair ( because it is more profitable ) is demonstrated.

Glaucon argued that any one with such power and ne’er takes advantage of it, would be considered by others, if they knew, to be an imbecile. They would praise the ring holder to each other and maintain up visual aspects with one another from a fright that they excessively might endure unfairness.

Are people of course and exhaustively selfish? I believe people have to be selfish, in order to protect what they have or believe in. if they don t so the people who act unjustly and amorally will take from them what the privation.

Harmonizing to Glaucon, Justice is a mean or via media, between the best of all, which is to make unfairnesss and non be punished, and the worst of all, which is to endure unfairness without the power of revenge and justness is a in-between point between the two and is accepted, as neither good nor bad, but as the lesser of two immoralities, and is upheld by adult male s inability to systematically make good.

Can you believe of any other account for justness than his?

I agree with Glaucon s position of people and justness. I believe his positions are right in line with modern society. His statement is played out in every portion of our modern universe. We have films that demonstrate this point, like the film What Lies Beneath with Harrison Ford and Michele Phiffer, were he plays a hubby who murder his girlfriend and hides the grounds to maintain his matrimony to Phiffer. This besides demonstrates that worlds are non perfect and that we make errors. In the terminal it comes down to what type of errors we have made and the badness of those errors.


[Solved] story telling essay

The present study examined affective and cognitive empathy in preschool children. Seventeen children, ages three to five years, were given The Young Children’s Empathy Measure to determine their understanding of empathy. Participants were then read a children’s story and given the empathy measure again, to see if they expressed more empathy after hearing about a sympathetic protagonist. A second baseline score was obtained one week after the story was administered. On measures of cognitive anger, mean scores increased significantly after the story was heard. Other scores increased after hearing the story, indicating a trend that storytelling is an effective method of increasing expressions of empathy. Affective empathy is defined as being able to know about and understand another person’s feelings without having experienced the same situation (Feshbach, 1975). Children as young as three years of age have been shown to exhibit appropriate empathy toward others and to demonstrate correct understanding of others’ emotions (Gove & Keating, 1979; Poresky, 1990).

Although young children can correctly express empathy toward others, empathic abilities do appear to increase as one grows older and is able to view the world in a less egocentric manner (Piaget, 1966). Numerous studies have illustrated a strong positive correlation between age and ability to empathize. Children between five and six years of age show many more appropriate responses on empathy measures than children closer to three years of age (Gove & Keating, 1979; Poresky, 1990). This trend is not exclusive to the earliest years of development. Bryant (1982) administered a pencil and paper empathy scale to first, fourth, and seventh graders and found that seventh graders were more empathetic than the other two groups. Olweus and Endresen (1998) conducted a two-year longitudinal study of 13 to 16 year olds and found a steady increase in empathy as they aged.

Higher levels of empathy in children have also been correlated with the development of many positive behaviors at all ages. Seja and Russ (1999) discovered a strong correlation between high levels of fantasy play and empathy in first and second graders. This trend indicates that being able to vicariously understand the emotions of others is related to creativity and imagination. The ability to empathize is also correlated with increased prosocial behavior and emotional expressiveness and insight (Roberts & Strayer, 1996). Empathy also appears to increase a child’s comfort level and openness around other people, and decreases the physical distance they place between themselves and others (Strayer & Roberts, 1997).

Creativity, imagination, prosocial behavior, emotional expressiveness and insight, and increased personal openness are certainly positive behaviors to encourage in young children, as is empathy itself. Kalliopuska and Tiitinen (1991) developed two programs for nurturing empathy in six and seven year old children over a 4 month period. One program emphasized empathic development through music, combined with physical activity and art. The students learned songs about caring for animals and friendship. The other activities included songs and active games, sculpting clay images of classmates and reflecting their emotions, and playing games about consoling others. In the second program, empathy was developed using drama and stories. Children played the roles of teachers and students enacting an animal’s first day at school. Students also used puppets to act out stories about making friends, and later discussed the stories and the emotions of their characters.

Both programs were highly effective in teaching empathy; the children in the test groups showed significant increases in empathy and prosociability after the 4-month program relative to children in the control group. In the condition emphasizing stories and drama, children showed an even greater increase in these behaviors. These results indicate that empathy can be consciously taught, and that utilizing drama and stories, where children can take on and see and hear the role of another, is a very effective method of teaching empathic behavior.

There is further evidence to indicate that the use of stories is an effective way of teaching empathy to young children. Kagan and Knudson (1982) conducted a study in which five to seven year olds were played tapes of adults involved in happy, angry, anxious, and sad interactions. The same participants were also told stories about children experiencing the same four emotions. Children showed significantly higher levels of affective empathy toward the children in stories than the adults on tape. This lends further support to the idea that children respond more empathetically to characters in stories than in other media. The results also suggest that children are more empathetic to other children than toward adults, possibly because it is easier to identify with the feelings of a peer whose emotions they are more likely to share. Children also showed more empathy toward protagonists who experienced misfortune than they did toward those in more everyday circumstances (Strayer & Roberts, 1997).

The purpose of the present study was to measure levels of empathy in preschool-aged children when storytelling was incorporated, and to compare these levels to empathy exhibited when storytelling was not used. Where previous research used stories as an integral part of empathy measures, in the current study storytelling was not directly involved in the empathy measure. Because most young children are simply read stories and not consciously taught empathy along with them, this seemed a more realistic model for testing the effectiveness of storytelling on a child’s affective empathy. Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that children would exhibit higher levels of empathy after hearing a story with a sympathetic, school-aged protagonist than when simply asked questions from an empathy measure.

Participants were 17 children between three and five years of age (12 boys and 5 girls, mean age 4 years, 5 months). Participants were obtained through a preschool affiliated with Earlham College, a local community center, and through contacting faculty, staff, and community members by word of mouth. All parents and guardians were told all details of the study in a letter in advance, and all children participated with their parent’s knowledge and written consent. Parents were provided with the results at the conclusion of the experiment.

Participants were read a picture book, Hooway for Wodney Wat, (Lester, 1999). The children were also given the Young Children’s Empathy Measure (Appendix A), developed by Robert Poresky (1990). The Young Children’s Empathy Measure (YCEM) consisted of four verbally presented vignettes, each designed to elicit one of four emotions: sadness, fear, anger and happiness. The children were then asked two questions after each vignette. “How does the child feel?” was used to measure each child’s cognitive perspective, and “How do you feel about this?” was used to measure each child’s affective perspective.

The children were each visited individually three times by the experimenter. Visits were conducted either in the child’s preschool or home, and the same location was used in each session.

In the first session, the YCEM was administered and answers were recorded, to establish a baseline empathy score for each child. The second session took place on a different day, and the experimenter read the story to the child. Immediately afterward, the YCEM was administered a second time, and a second score was recorded. The story was not discussed in relation to the YCEM.

The third session took place 1 week after the second, to assess whether there would be any long-term effects of the story on empathy. The story was not mentioned by the experimenter, and the YCEM was administered a third time, and a third score was recorded.

Mean empathy scores for baseline, immediate, and delayed test conditions are shown in Table 1. Higher means indicate more appropriate expressions of empathy. One-way repeated measure ANOVAS were used to analyze the differences between the different experimental conditions for each vignette. For all items, means were higher for cognitive than for affective empathy. Storytelling produced a significant effect in cognitive anger over the three conditions (F (df 2,32) = 4.216, p * .05). Post hoc paired t-tests (alpha set at .017 according to Bonferroni procedure) revealed a significant increase in empathy scores from the baseline (M = 3.0588, SD = .5557) to the immediate test condition (M = 3.4706, SD = .5145, p * .017). The same test also revealed marginal significance in the change of mean scores from the story condition to the second baseline test (M = 3.1765, SD = .3930, p = .056). These results indicate that storytelling did increase the empathy expressed by participants.

No significant changes in mean scores were found in the remaining seven questionnaire items, although an interesting trend was revealed. There appeared to be a further effect of storytelling for several more questionnaire items aside from affective anger. For cognitive sadness, affective sadness, and affective fear, mean scores increased from the baseline to the immediate condition, although not significantly (Table 1). These increased means indicate a definite trend of more appropriate expressions of empathy when storytelling is employed.

In three of the eight questionnaire measures, cognitive fear, as well as both affective and cognitive happiness, mean scores decreased from the baseline to the immediate condition, although not significantly (Table 1). This trend is interesting because it indicates a possible negative effect of storytelling. For the remaining item, affective anger, means remained the same from the baseline to the immediate condition. No effects of age or sex were found. Discussion

The hypothesis in this study was not strongly supported. In one half of the questionnaire items, scores increased as an effect of storytelling, one significantly. In three of the four remaining items, scores dropped from the baseline to the story condition. It is difficult to determine if these trends indicate whether or not storytelling has an effect on children’s empathy, and whether it is positive or negative.

There are several possible explanations for a decrease in empathy scores after hearing a story. The testing conditions were not always the most appropriate for reading to a child. At times, the test was administered in a large room with several other children, who often interrupted and asked questions about what was taking place. This might have increased the participant’s distractability or reduced the attention span, which in turn could reduce the impact and effectiveness of storytelling. A more ideal testing environment would be one that is quiet and the full attention of the experimenter and the child can be given to the story being read and the test being administered.

When working with preschool aged participants, it is also important to note that their logic is not always the same as that of an adult, and that it is quite variable. When asked, “how does a child who just lost its best friend feel?”, a young child may respond, “like he couldn’t go.” This answer might very well make perfect sense to the child, but it becomes difficult for the experimenter to determine what sort of emotion this is, and how it might be coded for data analysis. During the next session, however, the same child may be thinking in a different way and give the response that is considered most appropriate, “sad.” In the mind of the child, however, these two seemingly different answers may mean exactly the same emotion. The variability in logic and verbal expression of young children can thus greatly effect the responses given on a questionnaire.

In the present study, it was interesting to examine the children’s understanding of affective versus cognitive empathy. Participants consistently demonstrated a better understanding of what another child’s emotion would be than what their own would be in response to the other child’s situation. The question “how does this child feel?” leaves much less room for interpretation that the question, “how do you feel about that?” It is possible that the latter could be interpreted as, “how do you feel about being in that situation?” or “how do you feel about the child’s involvement in that situation?” If interpreted the first way, the child must simply put him or herself in a situation which he or she has most likely experienced, which is much more concrete, and easier to do at this young age. The question becomes more difficult when interpret the second way, which requires the child to relate to an imaginary child in an imaginary situation.

Another interesting trend was which emotions appeared to be best understood. Children consistently mistook anger for sadness, in response to the vignette, “a child really wants to go out but is not allowed.” The change in means from the baseline to the story was significant, but mean scores were generally lower for anger than for sadness, fear, and happiness. This indicates that young children are less aware of anger than other basic emotions, that it is more difficult for them to articulate, or possibly that they equate it with sadness. Children were most likely to correctly identify sadness and happiness consistently, which possibly indicates that they are more aware of these emotions, and are better able to verbalize them.

There was an indication that hearing a story with a sympathetic protagonist does actually lead a child to express more empathy. If administered to a larger sample in a more consistent and appropriate environment, it is quite possible a significant effect of storytelling could be found. In the present study, no attempt was made to consciously emphasize and teach empathy along with storytelling. In future research, storytelling could be proven more effective when combined with a deliberate teaching of empathy, which has also been shown to be highly effective. Future research could also examine the effects of different types of storybooks, with different types of characters and situations, and how this might change a young child’s expressions of empathy toward others.

Bryant, B. (1982). An index of empathy for children and adolescents. Child Development, 53, 413-425.

Feshbach, N. D. (1975). Empathy in children: some theoretical and empirical considerations. Counseling Psychologist, 5, 25-30.

Gove, F., & Keating, D. (1979). Empathic role-taking precursors. Developmental Psychology, 15(6), 594-600.

Kagan, S., & Knudson, K. (1982). Relationship of empathy and affective role-taking in young children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 141, 149-150.

Kalliopuska, M., & Tiitinen, U. (1991). Influence of two developmental programmes on the empathy and prosociability of preschool children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 323-328.

Lester, H. (1999). Hooway for wodney wat. United States: Houghton Mifflin.

Olweus, D., & Endresen, I. (1998). The importance of sex-of-stimulus object: age trends and sex differences in empathic responsiveness. Social Development, 7(3), 370-388).

Piaget, J. (1966). Psychology of intelligence. Totowa, N. J.: Littlefield, Adams.

Poresky, R. (1990). The young children’s empathy measure: reliability, validity and effects of companion

animal bonding. Psychological Reports, 66, 931-936.

Roberts, W., & Strayer, J. (1996). Empathy, emotional expressiveness, and prosocial behavior. Child Development, 67, 449-470.

Seja, A., & Russ, S. (1999). Children’s fantasy play and emotional understanding. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28(2), 269-277.

Strayer, J., & Roberts, W. (1997). Children’s personal distance and their empathy: indices of interpersonal closeness. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 20(3), 485- 503. Appendix A

The Young Children’s Empathy Measure

1. Sadness: “A child has just lost its best friend.”

2. Fear: “A child is being chased by a big, nasty monster.”

3. Anger: “A child really wants to go out but is not allowed.”

4. Happiness: “A child is going to its most favorite park to play.”

Mean Empathy Scores for Questionnaire Items












[Solved] story telling essay research paper storytelling is

Storytelling is every bit old as address. Once upon a clip, everyone was a narrator. To contend ennui and maintain themselves company, these early narrators chanted as they worked, stating the narrative of what they were making. Then “ I ” narratives became narrations affecting other people and the elements, and narrators told narratives of heros, myths, and legends. The art of storytelling evolved of course because some people preferred stating narratives and other preferable hearing to them. As society developed, people wanted to maintain a historical history of events.

The narrator occupied an honoured place and his function was really of import. Tribes competed to see who could state the best narratives, which led to overdone fanciful narratives of luxuriant heroic efforts. Gradually, some narratives featured animate beings to satirise tribal events. By utilizing animate beings, narrators could do merriment of male monarchs and chieftans without fright of requital. The Egyptians were the first to compose down their narratives. The Romans were good at distributing narratives, as were the itinerants whose mobile life enabled them to carry narratives far and broad. Royalty hired narrators or folk singers who told narratives of tribunal dirts or heroic achievements, attach toing themselves on musical instruments. The folk singer bit by bit surrounded himself with a cortege of tumblers, pages and clowns who helped him state the narrative in an entertaining manner. Folk singers were succeeded by minstrals and mimes who travelled from town to town doing their support by entertaining people with their storytelling public presentations.

Today, the art of storytelling continues as we tell narratives to kids to communicate with them, entertain them, and base on balls on information. Anyone can read a narrative but, when a narrative is told, kids feel a bond between the Teller and themselves. In a society where parents lead busy lives and kids are entertained by the impersonal communicating media of movies and telecasting, storytelling can be an priceless portion of your plan. An experience shared between Teller and hearer, it helps kids develop the accomplishments of listening and encourages them to visualise the narrative in their imaginativeness – to loosen up and fantasy safely. What kinds of narratives to Beaver-aged male childs like. They don’t attention for instructional narratives that sermonize. They do bask narratives such as ‘ Chicken Little’ or ‘ The Little Red Hen’ in which animate beings or objects have feelings, even when they are “ lesson ” narratives.

Children believe in thaumaturgy. A buss can transform the ugly toad into a handsome prince. They besides recognize justness and unfairness, offense and penalty. For immature male childs, it is of import for narratives to convey charming and fantasy. Like ‘ The Wizard of Oz’or ‘ Aladdin and his Magic Lamp’, they can be every bit far-fetched as the imaginativeness will take them, but they besides need to hold a sense of existent life and just drama.

There are certain stairs that narrators follow. They select a narrative appropriate to the juncture, involvements, and age of the audience, commit it to memory, fix the audience by sitting them in a circle, and get down the narrative. Professional narrators by and large memorise seven narratives a twelvemonth and have a repertory of about 20 narratives handy at all times. If you are an in experient narrator, expression for short narratives with repetitive phrases. Choose tales that you like because Beavers can feel when you aren’t lament on what you’r henium relation. You want narratives that build up suspence to a good flood tide, sooner tales where characters speak for themselves instead than consecutive narrations. Length is of import – ne’er more than 20 proceedings for Beaver-aged male childs.

Leave them desiring more. By and large, kid’s magazines are non a good beginning of narratives because the stuff is meant to be read by the kid, non out loud. When you’ve chosen the narrative, you need to memorise it. It will take a few hours spread over clip. First, read it mutely and seek to see the narrative in your head’s oculus by visualising it as a series of images. Then learn it by reading it aloud repeatedly, basking the words and the sound of the phrases. Think about words that may be new or unfamiliar to your audience and incorporate their significances into the narrative so that you won’t need to disrupt it during the stating to explicate. Time yourself when you read the narrative aloud. After you have memorized it, clip yourself once more. If you use less clip, you are either stating it excessively fast or jumping parts. If it takes much longer, you are stating the narrative excessively easy.

State your narrative to anyone who will listen. Before traveling to bed, read it aloud once more. If you can, tape or videotape yourself stating the narrative. Once you’ve memorized the narrative, you are ready to state it. These points will aid you do it more efficaciously. Smile and do oculus contact with your hearers. Vary the pitch of your voice and utilize facial looks and manus spirit of the narrative – unless you do, we arn’t state it. In taking narratives it is a good thought to choose a subject for the hr, hebdomad, etc. ( Honesty, courtesy, trueness, safety ) . Be certain to read the narrative out loud foremost because some are better read than told. Don’t be afraid to utilize high and low tones to portray characters. Be certain of your sequence of events; so rehearse out loud, in forepart of a mirror if possible, until you are used to the sound of your ain voice and gestures.

These gestures should be really simple – if used at all Be certain your facial look interprets the temper of the narrative. Your eyes are most of import – utilize them. Atmosphere can do or interrupt a storytelling period. Be certain it is quiet, secluded, and that there will be no breaks one time the narrative begins. Try some of the fast ones used by experient narrators – a “ narrative chapeau ” , which goes on when the narrative begins and comes off when it ends, or a mascot such as a teddy bear, doll or manus marionette to state the narrative to or take the portion of a character. This is a simple device for taking your head off the hearing audience if you are a small shy. And the gap sentence! Don’t ever say “ Once upon a clip … ” Why non seek: “ Once, in the long, long ago and really far off … ” “ On the really highest mountain in the whole universe lived an old adult male … ” “ Those were the years when mighty animals roamed the jungle … ”

[Solved] story about the iceman essay

Otzi is a mummy from the stone age, 5300 years ago, discovered by two German hikers named Erika and Helmut Simon in 1991 (1). “The Iceman” as he was nicknamed, is a mummy who was unfortunately murdered due to jealously most likely from his important role in the community. Archaeologist have an idea who Otzi is including his importance to the community, how he died and why because of artifacts found with his body. Belongings carried on a person often signified the importance of a person in the community.

Archaeologist believe Otzi was important to the community because he was found with a copper bladed-axe. Copper artifacts were very rare back then and only certain important people had copper weapons. “Otzi’s copper axe is an important clue about his social status. Copper axes and daggers were status symbols denoting membership of the warrior or leadership class, as attested to by human-like stone statues of the time. The Iceman and his family therefore had considerable status within their community and may well have been cattle owners, chiefs or village representatives.

” (1) This quote explains how important the copper axe is as a clue to who Otzi was 5300 years ago. Another artifact suggest that Ozti was a hunter since he carried a long bow and arrows that appeared to be made by him, as they have unfinished carvings on it, including incomplete arrows, with only two done. This lead to the fact Otzi was making his weapons as he traveled to hunt. Another important tool of his was his dagger, made of flint, it which would have carved his tools and prepared the animals he hunted, though the dagger was too small to use for hunting or as a way to defend himself.

Just the tools and weapons were important research for the archaeologist but the most important artifact hound was Otzi himself. Otzi is very important for archeologist because he is the key artifact to answer questions of the stone age. When Otzi was found, he had his weapons and clothes with him, leaving several clues on what humans wore and what weapons they had 5300 years ago. Archaeologist already had an idea of what humans used in the stone age but with Otzi there is more evidence. The reason why archaeologists find Otzi so important is because he is the oldest intact mummy ever found.

“Some have called the discovery of Otzi one of the most spectacular archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. He is oldest intact human ever found. ”(2) This is an example of what archeologist thought of the Iceman. Otzi’s body is interesting because he was in his 40-50s when he died, which was old back then and people his age did not usually go out hunting. Otzi was not the healthiest when he died, he had arthritis in his joints and whipworms, which are worms in the intestine and can cause diseases(4).

Archeologist wonder why a unhealthy old man would be up in the mountains, one reason could be that he was chased up there. The evidence shows that he was an older, unhealthy man who died alone in a place he normally would not have been. For years it was a mystery of how Otzi died, with many archeologist suggesting different ideas but having no definitive proof. Some of the suggestions were that he froze to death, wild animals attacked him, he got caught in a blizzard, or was killed by other people(3).

Archaeologist found evidence of a flint arrowhead in Otzi’s left shoulder, pointing to the fact Otzi was murdered. To prove that this flint arrowhead killed Otzi, archaeologist found the wound opening on his back, showing that it did not heal before he died. “an arrow entered his back, passed near his lung and severed an artery, causing him to die from loss of blood. ”(2). Yet if Otzi was murdered it was most likely by a group of people and Otzi was able to run away but unfortunately lost to much blood, leading to his death.

Otzi took his last breath in the mountains, after being shot with an arrow, and soon was covered in snow and ice, leaving his body to be frozen in time. It is very rare to find fully intact mummies from the stone age, and the find of Otzi is a very rare find. Such a find is exciting as it helps archeologists to piece together clues as to who a person was, how they died, and their importance to the community. 5300 years ago, an older, unhealthy man died along in the mountains, a place he normally would not be.

His weapons were a key find as there was a copper axe, one of the first ever found of that age indicating his importance to the community, and a flint dagger which indicated he was a hunter. His wound which still had an arrowhead in it was unhealed, and indicated that he had been shot. Put together, it is speculated that he was murdered, likely due to jealousy of fellow community members or bandits. Piecing all of these clues together, archeologists are able to create a story about the Iceman, and I think the greatest story of Otzi was how he died with the blood loss from an arrowhead in his left shoulder.

[Solved] story of an hour essay research paper

Narrative Of An Hour Essay, Research Paper

“ The Story of an Hour ” , by Kate Chopin, is a narrative of a adult female who, through the mistakenly reported decease of her hubby, experienced true freedom. Both tragic and dry, the narrative trades with the boundaries imposed on adult females by society in the 19th century. The writer, Kate Chopin, like the character in her narrative, had first-hand experience with the male-dominated society of that clip and had experienced the decease of her hubby at a immature age ( Internet ) . The similarity between Kate Chopin and Louise Mallard can merely go forth us to inquire how much of this narrative is fiction and how much is personal experience. Indeed, Louise Mallard and Kate Chopin ’ s lives are really similar and dry. Louise ’ s life began one time she came to the realisation that she could populate for herself. During this “ hr ” she felt true joy and freedom, but her life ended suddenly as her hubby walked through the door. Like Mrs. Mallard, Chopin ’ s composing calling began one time her hubby died. She wrote a few aggregations of short narratives, but when she began showing her feminist positions, the critics walked through the door and her life as a author was over.

The scene of the narrative takes topographic point at the Mallard ’ s house when Richards and Josephine find out that Mrs. Mallard ’ s hubby, Brently, has been killed in a train accident. Mrs. Mallard has a bosom disease, so Richards and Josephine decide to state her every bit gently as possible so she will non happen out someplace else and suffer from a bosom onslaught. On the “ snorkel ” degree, the narrative appears to be about how Mrs. Mallard deals with the intelligence of the decease of her hubby. On a “ scuba ” degree, nevertheless, the narrative is about the feeling of intense joy that Mrs. Mallard experiences when she realizes that she is free from the influences of her hubby and the effects of happening out that her new-found freedom is non to be. In this fantastic short narrative, Chopin explains that freedom and life should be together, or non at all.

Freedom is what Louise Mallard longs for. Mrs. Mallard reacts really different to the intelligence, than a normal married woman might respond to the decease of her hubby. She loves her hubby but is non happy with her life. After the tragic intelligence, she envisions her life as being Fuller. She does non give herself clip to believe upon the topic, but instantly starts sobbing because that was the reaction she thought she should give. Chopin writes, “ she did non hear the narrative as many adult females have heard the same … she wept at one time ” ( par.3 ) . This was non a reaction of merely emotions, but besides of how

she thought she should respond in forepart of her household and friends. After locking herself in the purdah of her sleeping room, she begins to acknowledge things that one might non believe of after a loved 1 has merely passed off. “ She could see in the unfastened square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life ( par. 5 ) .“ This is the point at which she begins to cover with the grieving procedure, but besides starts to recognize the beauty of life. She begins to see that there is so much more to populate for. “ She sank, pressed down by a physical exhaustion that haunted her organic structure “ ( par. 4 ) . She tries to comfort her injury and hurting, for she can experience the toll it is taking on her bosom. She can experience her bosom get downing to neglect her, but she starts to visualize her life as being better. “Free, free, free“ ( par. 11 ) , Louise chanted. She feels free because Brently is dead, and she can now make everything she’s of all time dreamed of. “There were spots of bluish sky demoing here and at that place through the clouds that had met and piled one above the other in the West confronting her window” ( par. 6 ) .” The clouds piled on top of each other represent her bosom job, her husband’s decease, and the other bad things that have bombarded her at one time. The spots of bluish sky represent the hope of her new and better life that she wants to get down. The hope those things can acquire better. She understood that there would be no suppression any more, no “powerful will bending” her personality. Filled with the feeling of felicity and vision of the free life, Mrs. Mallard came out of the room. Precisely at this minute, when everything was so first-class, the catastrophe struck.

Brently Mallard, who was supposed to be dead, entered the house. He reentered Louise ’ s universe and put an terminal to her new life. Mrs. Mallard knew that all her dreams, visions, and programs, were ruined. At that blink of an eye, she was faced with world. She realized that with his return, nil would travel the manner she planned. The life that she hated so much was non traveling to alter. She realized that she would populate as Brently ’ s married woman for the remainder of her being, and ne’er experience true freedom. The same “ grey cloud ” covered her and the atoms of her broken dreams. Unfortunately, Louise couldn ’ t digest the returning of her hubby, and she collapsed with a bosom onslaught. As physicians said afterwards, it was the “ joy ” that killed her. Rather than holding freedom and life together, Louise chose to non hold life at all. Ironically, even though her life was cut short, she left it merrily to travel on, possibly, to a topographic point where she ’ d be free forever!

[Solved] story frames essay research paper story framessince

Story Frames Essay, Research Paper

Story Frames

Since all perceptual experience is shaped by the cultural cognition you bring to it, in-depth apprehension about ever involves spread outing that cognition by traversing cultural boundaries. ( Maura Shea, 1997 ) Here is a quotation mark from the book Frame Works that is bigger than life and demands an account.

Barbara Donofrio ( 1990/1997 ) stated that [ C ] ommon cultural narratives are frequently referred to as narrative frames, narrative schemes, or books. ( pg. 19 ) These narrative frames are told throughout our lives from our households, schools, and communities, and stand for a sort of design of what we are and what we can go. In this essay, we will analyze the affects that narrative frames and civilization have on us as persons, how the narrative frames and civilizations of others can impact our lives, and the positive and negative facets of narrative frames and civilization.

While turning up, we were told narratives about the feats of our relations, both past and present, some of our ain childhood experiences, and about life or common cultural narratives which became embedded in our personal memories and personalities. These narratives developed into our narrative bank and created the foundation of our individualism. We took those narratives and began determining them to conform to our ain sense of ego. Silko ( 1967/1997 ) said, Just as the narratives we grew up with form us and our perceptual experiences, so do we besides build and show our ain ego by determining the narratives we tell. ( p. 36 ) In other words, the narratives we put into memory are used for callback of a state of affairs or happening that we change into a version that suits our ain single involvements and ends. There are practicably 100s of facts or inside informations that we opt to bury or go forth out because it doesn t fit our version of how the narrative should be told. As persons we have the [ a ] bility to make general narratives from specific experiences based on

our inclination to bury unimportant inside informations. ( A. R. Luria, 1968/1997 p. 117 ) As Silko ( 1967/1997 ) points out, The version of that first day of the month or first twenty-four hours on the occupation that you remember may, in fact, merely mistily resemble the version recalled by those who suffered it with you. ( p. 36 )

Probably one of the most of import statements about our narrative frames and civilization we grew up with is, The narrative frames provided by our civilizations tell us what s of import, what we should pay attending to, and what we should eschew. ( A. R. Luria, 1968/1997 p. 117 ) If our narrative frames are powerful plenty to make this to ourselves, say what sort of affect they will hold on others.

Now that we ve looked at how narrative frames and civilization affect us as persons, allow s take a expression at the affect on how other people s narrative frames and civilizations impact our life. It truly

doesn T affair who we are speaking about when we say other people. The fact that we had no personal contact with an person has no bearing on whether their narrative frames and civilization could impact us. As an illustration I would wish to present to you a immature adult male who like you or I grew up being told about the narratives of his relations, his ain childhood experiences, and the common cultural narratives of life. He is person that you likely cognize little approximately as an person and more than probably ne’er met or had personal contact with, but believe me ; his actions had a big impact on you and your civilization.

Lee Harvey Oswald ( 1939-63 ) was merely 24 old ages old when he assassinated President John F. Kennedy. What sort of narratives do you say he was told and how did his narrative frames change our civilization? I couldn t Begin T

O know the replies to either of those inquiries but we can take a expression at his life and seek to conceive of what they might be. His male parent died when he was immature and his female parent moved from metropolis to metropolis. As a adolescent he encountered leftist political propaganda and became an professed Marxist. At the age of 16, he joined the US Marines

Corps. Late 1959, he was given a dishonourable discharge from the Marine Reserves as a consequence of going a Russian citizen. He re-emigrated to America in 1962 and had a series of low-paying dead-end occupations. Using the assumed name of A.J. Hidell, he purchased a mail-order rifle and six-gun, which subsequently were identified as the rifle that killed the president and the handgun that killed the constabulary

officer J.D. Tippit. Although this is a short rendering of merely one adult male, his actions had a immense impact on a State.

Is Lee Harvey Oswald the merely other peoples narrative frames and civilization that has had an affect on us? The reply to that inquiry is, decidedly non! What about the instructors and schoolmates where we attended school? Their narrative frames and civilization influenced our lives for about twelve old ages if we graduated from high school and more if we continued on to college. As we continued through school, our narrative bank increased, and our cognition of what is of import, and what to eschew besides increased.

With the illustrations, we can see how other peoples narrative frames and civilizations have an affect on as persons by imparting more narratives and placing different cultural facets to our narrative bank, which allows us to determine our ain individualities. This can be seen as both positive and negative, depending on the fortunes, and is something that we need to research farther.

Contingent upon what we as persons do with the cognition gained from the interplay of our ain narrative frames and civilizations and those of the universe that surrounds us, will find the positive or negative influence it has on us. Narratives have many qualities that are of import in our society and civilization. If portrayed right they can be employed as a acquisition tool, a schoolroom topic ( History ) , an addition in understanding and cognition of our manner of life, and a manner to analyze why things are the manner they are.

Phillippe Aries, ( 1962/1997 ) said, Every civilization has its portion of official narratives celebrated anecdotes, narrative frames, and account forms that can rule thought and stifle option

points of position. ( pg. 372 ) These type of narratives and narrative frames take on the position of common sense and [ I ] mpose themselves on our experiences and construe them for us. ( pg 373 ) These official narratives tend to adhere us together as a cultural whole, but [ b ] lind us as persons to new thoughts and new ways of thought ( pg. 374 ) The worst thing about these narrative frames ( official narratives ) is that [ tungsten ] vitamin E rhenium forced to accept all the concealed account forms and all the values, beliefs, and premises they entail, without holding the opportunity to acknowledge their being as merely another narrative frame than can be questioned, critiqued, and challenged.

( pg. 376 )

We have looked at how narrative frames and civilizations affect us as persons, how the narrative frames of civilizations of others can impact us, and the positive and negative affect narrative frames and civilizations can hold. If our perceptual experience is shaped by the cultural cognition we brought to it, so our enlargement has decidedly crossed cultural boundaries. In making so, some were good, some were bad, some had an affect on us, and some we affected others, but throughout we have left an feeling on our civilization and ourselves.

[Solved] stop stealing songs essay research paper have

Stop Stealing Songs Essay, Research Paper

Have you dreamed that you could acquire your favourite creative person fs vocals such as Eric Clapton, Rolling Stones, and Beatles without any payment? The dream has come true: Napster, an on-line music sharing soft. It enables its users to download music files through the Internet, which means that every bit long as one music lover has a computing machine and connexion to the Internet, the music lover can acquire popular vocals, classical music, and even national anthems. One Cadmium costs about 15 dollars, but Napster does non necessitate its users to pay because the users are merely borrowing and imparting their music files with each other. This is merely like a dream. I do non even cognize how much money I have spent to listen to my favourite instrumentalists.

The dream, Napster, has attracted over 80 1000000s of music fans all over the universe since it was made in 1999, harmonizing to USA Today. Unfortunately it has besides caught music companies f attending and Napster was sued. The conflict between the music companies and Napster, which pretends to be a christ for music fans who complain about Cadmium monetary values or merely desire vocals free, were likely to be the lose of Napster and, in fact, it was. The Supreme Court ordered Napster to restrict its service and the restriction of the service has been performed; nevertheless, this is non plenty. Napster should wholly halt its service because it is, in world, go againsting the right of first publications, users are non paying creative persons, and it can botch the hereafter of on-line music and films distribution.

Napster is surely go againsting the right of first publications. An alibi that is frequently generated by the music stealing users is that they do non administer music files that they have, but they merely borrow and impart the files among the users, so they are non go againsting the right of first publications. Even though personal music trading, which has been often done among music consumers since the innovation of tapes and CD degree Fahrenheits, may non pique against the jurisprudence and, as a consequence, the users may non be lawbreakers of the right of first publications, Napster is non the same instance. It offers a topographic point to merchandise music files for over 80 1000000s of the users. Is it possible for a individual to cognize over 80 1000000s of users to warrant the usage of Napster, stating gThis is merely a personal trading H? If it is possible, they may non be stealing vocals and their alibi does work, but in fact it is non. Trading vocals among over 80 1000000s of the users can non be regarded as a personal trading because they do non cognize from who they are borrowing music files and who is imparting the music files to them. The graduated table of Napster is excessively big to warrant the alibi. Besides, another ground is present. If the trading vocals among over 80 1000000s of the users were merely personal trades, Napster itself could go against the right of first publications. The job is this inquiry, gIs the trade that has an bureau regarded as a personal one? H Of class, in this instance the bureau is Napster, which offers the topographic point to merchandise the users f music files. The reply is non because evidently the trading is done with a 3rd party. Without Napster, the users can non acquire any vocals through the Internet.

The 2nd job that Napster has is that it does non pay instrumentalists. Making music and selling it is the manner to do a life of the instrumentalists, so if all the music funs did non buy CD degree Fahrenheits, how the instrumentalists can feed themselves? It is non merely the instance of the instrumentalists. It is applied for all occupations, tradesmans, mill workers, and applied scientists. Paying for those who worked to do something or service clients is an indispensable portion of the economic system, including the workers f lives and even others f life. If doing something and working did non allow workers gain, non merely the workers would non be able to do a life, but besides the society would be about dead. The users do non believe about the fact. They merely complain that Cadmium monetary values are excessively expensive and the music companies are rip offing the users, T

biddy they regard themselves as combatants for the evil music companies non to destroy the hereafter of music and instrumentalists. Ironically, one amusing thing here is that who are destroying the hereafter of music and instrumentalists are the users of Napster. As I already mentioned, paying for the service, including everything related with doing money, is an indispensable portion of the society, so what is traveling to go on to their favourite instrumentalists, if the users do non pay? gA rate of 15 cents a vocal would be equal to or greater than what most creative persons receive from every Cadmium sold H ( Cracker-Sound off! ) . This is one web site that opposes to Napster says. Let me cipher how much money the creative persons are losing. Suppose half of the users, about 40 1000000s of the users, use Napster and download merely one vocal a twenty-four hours. The estimated sum of money the users are stealing is six 100 thousand dollars per twenty-four hours. These computations have no concrete information and the sum may be lower or even higher, but the of import thing is that, at least, the harm for the music companies and creative persons is non small, but immense.

The concluding ground that Napster should halt its service is that they can destruct the hereafter of the on-line distribution of music and films. The Internet is so convenient that it enables clients to buy books, apparels, and even autos while they are in their place. The lone one job that the online shopping has is that it is fundamentally non so different from catalog shopping, offering many sorts of merchandises such as apparels, furniture, and electrical contraptions, which means it requires some manner of bringing. On the contrary, on-line music and films distribution does non. I am one of those who want life to be more convenient. I am one of those who like music and believe it is better to acquire vocals through the Internet for the affair of clip spent to travel to shops to buy CDs. However, the manner to acquire vocals should non be Napster. The ground has been stated. It is go againsting the right of first publications. If Napster is non banned, who wants to sell vocals or films through Internet? If they sell music and films on Internet, the consequence will be obvious: buccaneering. Consequently, no 1 will be ready to administer music and films online, which will be perchance a new manner of selling those sorts of amusement contents. The users of Napster and Napster itself do non care about it. They are stealing vocals and destructing the hereafter of the on-line amusement thorough their selfish desire.

Even though there are some ways to let Napster be alive such as commanding the sum of vocals downloaded, it will non work because gThat sort of centralised control is anathema to Napster users, who have flocked at that place mostly because of the huge and turning array of music available for copying. H ( Mercury News ) One good thing Napster has brought is that it has awakened the music companies and instrumentalists to the importance of security accompanied by the online music distribution. Now, the clip to go cognizant of it has been over. It is the clip to state good-by to Napster, which has contributed to the music industry in some manner. I like music. I respect the instrumentalists. Even if I feel Cadmium monetary values are excessively expensive, I will pay the instrumentalists and the companies every bit long as I want to listen to music. That is the duty of music fans. Now, it is the clip to give up Napster.

The List of Citations

Graham, Jefferson. gDespite Troubles, There degree Fahrenheits Still Hopes for Napster. H USA Today. May 23, 2001.

Healey, Jon. gNapster Must Stop Music. H San Jose Mercury News. July 27, 2000.

gNapster fs Musical History h. The Standard. Feb 12, 2001. May 24, 2001.

gNapster ideas c H Cracker – Sound off! May 21, 2001.

Rivenburg, Roy. gWhose Art Is It, Anyhow? h Los Angeles Times. Sept 29, 2000

Vogelstein, Fred. G.I. It Sharing or Stealing? h U.S. News & A; World Report. June 2, 2000


[Solved] stonning of soraya m

The story of Soraya M. brings light to world were a women’s voice is not heard. When viewing this film one must think of women in our own lives, what value we put on our loved ones as the value we put on one self. Assuming you have seen the movie, read the novel, I will give a brief summary of a witness account to an unspeakable injustice of an innocent woman, as I would like to focus this paper on the underlying issues such as religion, culture, tradition, customs, authority, betrayal and injustice.

It all seemed to be unreal of a dreadful tale being told by a woman in regards to how her niece faced brutal and inhumane death by stoning the day before. The conversation was recorded by a tape recorder, to which was sent for the rest of the world to know. In a brief summary of the events that occurred in a small Iranian village by the name of Kuhpayeh. The story is being passed down to a journalist who at the time was held at the village due to car problems.

Ali was working at a jail at the time, as one of the prisoners was put for death row he made a deal of assisting him if and only, he would be able to marry his daughter for lust and heritage. Ali who was married to a woman named Soraya which he then found his escape by accusing her of denying him and not providing as he pleased. Through many disagreements Soraya would not follow with what Ali craved. Ali then blacked mailed the Mullah, saying if he did not convince Soraya to give him the divorce he would spread the truth behind his dishonorable acts as a former guard.

The Mullah then put up an offer to support Soraya in exchange for sexual favors but was denied, Soraya then agreed to work for a widower in return for compensation as she thought that would be her opportunity to support herself and two daughters. As an advantage Ali used the circumstances to spread out lies about Soraya being unfaithful to him. Soon after, rumors spread out and Soraya was accused of adultery which punishment meant being sentenced to death by stoning. Soraya was then stoned to death by her father, husband, sons, and the crowd.

The following day the people were informed that Ali’s marriage was put down, all that was done had no cause. The widower then admitted his dishonesty about the adultery and was forced to lie. The story of a death innocent woman was given to the journalist by her loyal aunt to be testimony to the world for the injustice that has been committed. The story is not only depicting the unfair and cruel events that happened to an innocent women but the reason as to why it was carried out. How could the court system fail with such blindness and corruption?

Let us begin with the point of view a woman has in that society, as mentioned in film, the woman must conform to feeding the needs of their husband regardless of what they feel. Men held much value in themselves which was mandatory to women to enhance such worth in men. An example in the film would be when the oldest son disrespectfully knocks over a beverage in retribution of his mother talking back to his father. The father replied “this is a man’s world”, what affect this had on the boy and how this mold would him into the man he would become.

Should he back from his moral standings and accept his role as a man in that society, what is right what is wrong according to them when dealing with the value of a woman, even one’s own mother? As Soraya gave the message, that a woman without her husband was of no worth, gave her reason to not give Ali the divorce. She feared that once Ali left them she would not have a firm base to support her two daughters, since her husband only wanted to keep the boys. How people manipulate religion and customs to convince the mass to gain personal goals, how many centuries has this occurred, how many innocent people were sacrificed for greed and lust?

Even Soraya mentioned that her father would be present during the court hearing and that she felt he would follow the mass rather than stand up for her. When she was young she was sold to a man to work in which she mentioned everything was done to her except intercourse, she did not want that life for her two daughters. She requested to her aunt that her daughters must know the truth of what had happened to their mother so that they would not be ashamed of her. Many societies to this day hold their people to old customs and beliefs; this could be viewed as respected to their ancestors but could be also viewed as a barrier to evolving.

Should people still hold public hangings, should thieves get their hands cut off? To what extent should the old custom be hold accountable to? Stoning was known as the Penal Code a form of capital punishment in Iran. Stoning punishments were carried out for adultery. By tradition up first was Soraya’s father whom at stand disowned her “she no longer is my daughter, I no longer am her father” after numerous missed attempts a woman from the crowed begs that the stones failing to hit her were a sign of her innocence.

The husband then takes over, giving her the first strikes of injustice. The sons were then forced to do the same, followed by the widower who then consciously dropped the stones and walked away. A very memorable moment was when Soraya gave her last speech saying “you all know me I have been in your homes, we have shared meals, I am your neighbor, I am your daughter, I am your mother, I am your wife. How could you do this to me? ” When this occurred, all I could think of was when, Jesus said, “Let any one of you who is without sin be the first to cast a stone at her. (John 8:7) People in general have no say; people’s choices are generally based by their surrounding or by the people in their authority. We must hold our choices for one self. We must leave old customs behind in order to progress. Put into thought, would you treat you mother as done in the film? It comes to a time where we must see how we ourselves treat others. Take the time to reminisce on life.