[Solved] australian landscape

Australian landscape

The Australian landscape according to the painting works of émigré artist Eugene Von Guerard “is vast with mountainers ranges stretching towards the distance horizon from the middle ground, it is also deep, yawning valley that lies before it”.  James Smith describes it as, having rocks “The lords of creation are represented by a couple of Aborigines… whose appearance of nature with which they are surrounded”1.

The colonist views the Australian landscape of being wild and untamed existing further to colonial civilization. This stretched wilderness in Australia had attracted colonial settlers who were exploring the world, to them Australian on land had become a good site for colonial settlements.  It was rich in natural resources which were untapped and unutilized as they believed.  The colonists view this landscape as being uncolonised wilderness, according to the colonial artist in their description of the Australian land.

Charlies in last magician views Australia “as fiercely unpretentious, rough and practical”, the continent had no culture in his description.  The colonist arguments were based on a stereotypical perspective that Britain had used to justify their establishment of their rule in the continent.  The colonists looked at Australia as the “last remaining adventure and as a challenge for anyone enjoying outdoor activities” according to the European colonists.  The landscape was seen as naturally pure where “The land looms large in white Australian culture”.2. The colonist viewed the landscapes being benevolent and having a lot of benefits.

The vast land was a threat and inhumane “it is an enduring cultural myth that European found the Australian environment hostile, alien, oppressive and they had great difficulty in coming to terms with it aesthetically”.  The inhabitants of this land were seen as belonging to that landscape that was characterized by heat.  To the colonist it was a desert.

The colonist attitude towards Australian landscape tended to identify the continent with the nature and the people culture.  The colonist had settled in the continent where James look arrived in 1770.  To him the land was fertile and the British government having lost it colonies in America, after gaining their independence in 1776 decided to venture in Australia and acquire new colonies3.

The British hopes of tapping the resources of the vast fertile land were not fulfilled as some southern parts of the region was unsuitable for agriculture thus it was viewed as hostile and threatening the landscape.  The notion changed in 1851 when gold was discovered, it was seen as a prosperous land that needed to be exploited.  This increased the Australian settler’s desire to adventure.  The landscape could be used a place where convicted criminal from Britain would be deported.4

The colonists were unable to understand the characteristic of the Australian landscape. They viewed it as virgin land that was suitable for utilization and exploitation for economical benefits. But this view was contrary to what they had expected. The landscape was poor in resources allocations. The quality of available arable land was also low hence unsuitable for agriculture.

In what ways did the colonist view Australian landscape as resource to be utilized during its invasion period of 1785?

            The colonist in Britain had viewed the Australian landscape as hostile, alien land.  The explorers from Europe like Thomas Mitchell and William wills in the period between 1830 and 1840s had made several expeditions toward the south Eastern parts of the land.  The explorations were intended to provide scientific explanation on the nature of the land mappings.  The South East region had dashed away the hopes that were held by the colonist that the land was fertile and suitable for agriculture5  Britain wanted to explore on Australia and establish their rule in order to use the unutilized natural resources.  This led to the start of journey that was to venture into the new land.  In May 13, 1787 first fleets of boat departed led by Captain Arthur Philip.   The British government had intention of looking for a space for convicts.  Australian landscape was to provide a strong base of a colony that could be self-supporting.  Rural industry I Britain was to benefit as agriculture activities in the new space could flourish6

            British government hoped that just like the situation was in North America, its agricultural methods could also be applied in Australia Agriculture through proper and well coordinated of utilization of untapped resources would create a self sustaining rural economy.  Britain had to introduce breeds of cattle, goats, pig’s sheep and introduce grain in the foreign land.  These breeds were to be propagated in order to produce and ensure future flocks.

            Agriculture in Australia was faced with a lot of difficulties in its establishment in the 1778 period.  This was according to the governor of that time who had written to Lord Sydney.  Farming was very important in Australia as it enable the survival of immigrants. “The soundly taxes and falling timber were audible images of the British taking possession of nature and preparing land”[7]

            The colonists could not understand the land characteristic in Australia.  The land was unsuitable for agricultural activities.  Through the use of settlers agriculture the British government hoped that applications of the necessary skills would make the colony self-sustaining.  The indigenous Aborigines people had restricted against the invasion of their land by the British.  This invasion had led to stiff competition over the available resources.   There was widespread starvation because the occupation and activities of the British in the Aborigines land had led to destruction of land and food resources.8

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dennis Judd, Empire: The British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present, (2001). Gibson R., Dissolving into Landscape, (1992), 13-15.

Lynette Russel, Colonial Frontiers: Indigenous- European Encounters in Settler Society, (Manchester University Press, 2001), 45-47.

Michael Williams, The Making of the South Australia Landscape|: A study in the History,            Academic Press, (1974).

Paul Smiz and Carolyn Bain, Australia, lonely planet, (2005).

Philip Clarke, Where the Ancestors Walked: Australia As an Aboriginal Landscape,         Allen and union, (2004).

Reynolds Henry, The other Side of the Frontier. Aboriginal Resistance to the European   Invasion of Australia, (1981).

Rob Linn, Battling the Land: 200 Years of Rural Australian, (1999), 1-3.

 Sigrun Meining, Witnessing the Past: History and Post- Colonialism in Australian           Historical, (2004), 9-15.

Tom Griffths, Hunters and Collectors: The Antiquarian Imagination in Australia, (1996).

1 Lynette Russel, Colonial Frontiers: Society, (2001), 45-47.
2 Sigrun Meining, Witnessing the Past: History and Post- Colonialism in Australian         Historical, (2004), 9-15.
3 Gibson R., Dissolving into Landscape, (1992), 13-15.
4 Tom Griffths,  The Antiquarian Imagination in Australia, (1996), 117-121.
5 Paul Smiz and Carolyn Bain, Australia, lonely planet, (2005), 465.
6 Michael Williams, The Making of the South Australia Landscape., Academic Press, (1974), 234-237.
[7] Philip Clarke, Where the Ancestors Walked:Allen and union, (2004), 35-38.
8 Reynolds Henry, Aboriginal Resistance to the European Invasion of Australia, (1981).

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