The cerebral cortex outer layer of the cerebrum has the two largest hemispheres that covers the upper part of the brain which are divided into smaller portion called lobes. Corticalization is an increase in size of the wrinkling of the cortex and without this we would not be any smarter than any other animal. Cerebral hemispheres are divided into right and left halves of the cortex connected by thick band axon fibers called corpus. Hemispheric specialization, testing only one side of the brain by a process called the Split Brain operation, which is essentially a person with two brains in one body.
The corpus callosum is cut, to control severe epilepsy (seizure disorder), but this operation is rare and is often used as a last resort. One brain two sides; the left brain analysis breaking information into parts and about 95% of people use the left brain to speak, write, and understand. This includes, time sense movements and rhythm. The right side of the brain processes information by using nonverbal responses such as, pointing at objects, simple language comprehension, recognition of pattern and most of all recognizing and expressing of emotion.
Lobes of the cerebral Cortex are larger fissures on the surface of the cortex. The Frontal lobes which is also known as the primary motor which is a very small portion of the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is responsible for reasoning planning, mental abilities, sense of self and motor control. This area contains mirror neurons, which becomes active when you observed some else and then you carried out the same action. The association areas which surrounds the cerebral combines and processes information.
Other areas in the association control higher abilities such as language, when the brain fails to function properly it might have damage to the association in the left area hemisphere and may suffer aphasia, an impaired ability to use language. Broca’s Area is a type of aphasia related to language and speech production. Once Broca’s Area has been damaged, a person knows what she/he wants to say but cannot say the words. Wernicke’s area is also an area in the brain related to language comprehension, which is located in the temporal Lobes. Once this area is damaged, the person has problems with meanings of words, NOT pronunciation.
The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the brain. The temporal lobes are involved in the retention of visual memories, processing sensory input, comprehending language, storing new memories, emotion, and deriving meaning. The Parietal Lobes is located on top of the brain. Also known as primary somatosensory cortex. The function includes processing information relating to the sense of touch, temperature and pressure. The occipital lobes register vision to the brain. You might ask, “Are men and women Brains different? ” The answer is yes.
The part of the brain responsible for regulating sexual behavior, is bigger and more active in men than it is in women. Portions of the corpus callosum are denser in women than in men, indicating that women integrate more information coming from both sides of the brain. Activity in both hemispheres during language processing is more observed among women than among men. However, both genders performed equally on the same task such as sounding out words while reading. Perhaps nature has given the brain different routes to the same ability. Brain tissue loss happens earlier and in greater quantity in men than in women.
Men lose neurons mainly in the cerebral cortex, particularly the frontal and temporal lobes, while women lose brain tissues primarily in the parietal lobe and the hippocampus. According to brain imaging techniques, the parietal lobe, an area of the cerebral cortex, is larger and more active in men than in women. In fine motor activities, such as sewing, drawing, painting and writing, women perform better. The linguistic and objective memories of women are also better. The subcortex, right underneath the cerebral, controls hunger, thirst, sleep, attention, sex, breathing and many other vital functions.
The subcortex can be divided into brainstem, midbrain, and the forebrain. The hindbrain or brain stem consists of three parts. The first is the medulla, which is actually an extension of the spinal cord into the skull. Besides containing tracts up and down to and from the higher portions of the brain, the medulla also contains some of the essential nuclei that govern respiration and heart rate. It is the regulatory system for sleep, waking, and alertness. The second part is the pons, which sits in front of the medulla, and wraps around it to the back.
It is primarily the pathways connecting the two halves of the next part, which is called the cerebellum. The cerebellum, which means “little brain” it is primarily responsible for coordinating involuntary movement. It is believed that, when you learn complex motor tasks, the details are recorded in the cerebellum. In human beings, the midbrain is the smallest part of the brain. It connects the hindbrain to the forebrain, and contains several pathways that link to hearing and vision. The largest and most interesting part of the brain is the forebrain. It starts with the thalamus, which is located in the center of your head.
Sensory messages pass through the thalamus before reaching the cortex. If this part of the brain is damaged, it can result to loss of all sense besides smell. The limbic system is a complex set of brain structures that lies on both sides of the thalamus, right under the cerebrum. It includes the hippocampus, amygdalae, limbic cortex and reticular activating system. It supports a variety of functions, including emotion, behavior, motivation and long term memory. It’s primarily responsible for our emotional life, and has a great deal to do with the formation of memories.
The endocrine system is a collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate your body’s growth, metabolism, and sexual function. The hormones are released into the bloodstream and transported to tissues and organs throughout your body. Adrenal glands release two hormones which are epinephrine and norepinephrine. Epinephrine arouses the body with fear and norepinephrine triggers anger. The Hypothalamus is actively controls the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary body functions, the hormonal system, and many body functions, such as regulating sleep and stimulating appetite.
Ovaries and testicles secrete hormones that influence female and male characteristics, respectively. The Pancreas secretes a hormone (insulin) that controls the use of glucose by the body. Parathyroid glands a hormone that maintains the calcium level in the blood. Pineal body glands involves with daily biological cycles. Pituitary gland produces a number of different hormones that influence various other endocrine glands, and thyroid gland produces hormones that stimulate body heat production, bone growth, and the body’s metabolism.