Pat displays an increased need grandiose, unrealistic plans. Pat is depicted as hatching a wild plan to win back his wife in spite of the restraining order; including read all the books that she is reading, searching for wedding albums late at night, waking up his family [Time 30. 30], weight loss [Time 7. 26] and harassment of staff at ex wife’s place of work. Pat shows mild impairment of judgment and insight including an increased, rapid talkative behavior (24. 30) and displays a pressure to keep talking. E. G. “Pat is shown meeting tiffany for the first time and is shown talking rapidly, asking ere repeatedly about her sex life when asked not to. [Time 24. 30] In team with this, Pat displays increased energy, hyperactivity’ and a decreased need for sleep. For example, early hours in the morning; Pat awakens his parents by bursting into their bedroom and opposing against Hemingway when failing to engage with his parents and instead, starting erratic arguments [Time: 1:25:01].
Additionally,activity that have high potential for painful consequences with regards to violent rapturous and behavior. [Time 11. 08 ] Given the film’s chronological nature, it is established that Pat showed mutinous indications of Bipolar Disorder for duration greater than six months (PAP 2013). Although Pat can be observed displaying an increased sense of hyperactivity or grandiosity, there is no suggestion that his symptoms are due to substance abuse, (PAP, 2013).
Etiology/Formulation Over the past few decades, the prevalent and devastating disorder Of bipolar has attracted widespread debate in relation to its predominant origins and maintaining factors (Youth, Woofer, Abbott, Melee & Parish, 201 2; Microfilm, 1988) As bipolar is a major public health problem bipolar is associated with excessive morbidity, Approximately 10-20% of individuals with bipolar disorder take their own life, and nearly one third of patients admit to at least one suicide attempt. M;leer-Airlessness, Forgoer & Bauer, 2002). More importantly, It should be noted that controversy has arisen over the exact reasons individuals suffer from bipolar disorder, where it still remains somewhat unclear (Alley, 2007). Although ambiguous, researchers have established that bipolar disorder results from a multifaceted interaction of genetic and environmental factors (Demand, McCabe & Murray, 2011) in sum, several things are said to be correlated with origin and maintenance of Bipolar disorder.
This literature review will examine the biophysically model approach. Examining biological, environmental and psychological under pinning in the diagnoses and classification of mental illness. Many researchers have conducted family studies to determine that bipolar disorder is drawn via genetic endowment (Goodwin and Jameson, 1990) bipolar disorder studies inform us the etiology includes genetic variants that increase an individual’s susceptibility to bipolar disorder. The research undertaken by Anta et al. 2014) and Beam et al. 2008) emphasized the importance of evaluating individuals risk of bipolar disorder based on a family history of the disorder. Particularly, first degree relatives are assumed to be a strong indicator of potential transmission of significant genes. On the contrary, these studies prove there is no one gene that has a significant effect on the development of bipolar disorder as studies predominantly focus on (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, Snaps) thus, it has been postulated that an array of genes with little effect may predispose predisposition.
Due to this unpredictability, many researchers (Smeller & Finn, 2003) have undertaken twin and adoption studies to examine the role of genetics and the environment in an endeavourer to further comprehend the biological substructures of bipolar disorder, specifically that of neurological processes. (Taylor, Forgone & Tuscan, 2002) As previously established that bipolar is highly heritable, with an 80% chance of heritability (Engulfing et al. , 2003; Glean, Bearded, Amend & Camilla, 2004) It has been long assumed that genetic transmission contributes to the progression of abnormal behaviors. Nonromantic, Schoolhouse & Ninja, 201 1) additionally, win studies conducted by (Allen, 1976), postulated both minimization and digitize twin pairs are discordant for bipolar disorder. In their studies, participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MR.) to determine whether any overlaps occurred in brain abnormalities, and to comprehend whether this was due to predominantly genetic and biological factors. Although genetic and neurological studies provide precious insight into bipolar disorder, there seems to be limited research on the way the disorder is biologically maintained (Baber et al. 2014; Change et al. , 2012). For example, individuals, regardless of social background, are born with a ‘biologically determined, heightened sensitivity to stress’ (Boyce & Ellis, 2005). On the contrary, this factor alone is not enough to bring on mental illness within an individual; additional environmental factors also work to play an integral role in the onset of bipolar disorder (Alloy et al. , 2005). Therefore, the importance of environmental causes may be implicated on the basis that they tend to be more malleable than biological risk factors (Waller et al. , 2014).
To add to, it is also conceivable that brain defects may be a trigger as a result f environmental accountabilities (Tinnier et al. R 2006; Waller et al. , 2014). In a recent adoption study by (Althorn, Forgone, Rewet, Morley & Hadrian, 2005) a placed emphasis adopters with genetic vulnerability for bipolar disorder, there biological vulnerability displayed enhanced sensitivity within the rearing family environment. Synchronously, environmental elements such as psychological stress, have been comprehended prominently through the diathesis-stress model (Monroe & Simons, 1991; Fleet, Hewitt, Blanket & Mosher, 1995; Hillman & Gerber, 1995.
Through implementation of this incept, it has become clear that major stressful life events have the potential to aggravate symptoms of psychosis (Malcolm-Schwartz et al. , 1 998; Degrees et al. , 2014). This was demonstrated through the Tester et al. (201 1) study, where undesirable life events were found to be associated with early indications of bipolar disorder, and the presence of daily stresses increased positive proximal symptoms. Environmental elements such as psychological stresses, have been established through the diathesis stress model. Monroe & Simons, 1991) additionally, an individual may develop psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety as a result of early life experiences. (Garn, 2005) which may compound symptoms via decreased or accurate ability to appraise situations cognitively. Salesman’s (1975) learned helplessness theory (L H) is an important example. An individual’s “cognitive appraisal” is based upon an individual’s past experience which determines the causation of present poor cognitive processes and stress responses.
Lazarus and Folkway (1 984), Whilst there is a profusion of research on family genetics, it has also been widely suggested that adverse family environments ay increase vulnerability to bipolar disorder (Schulz, Headier, Candid, Irritates & McMahon, 2006). For example, exposure to hostility and rejection within families, these recent studies have focused on specific communication styles such as negative attitudes within the family context and its influence on perpetuation Of bipolar disorder symptoms (Microfilm, 1988).
Further research also aimed to explore the concept of expressed emotion and its effect on the relapse of bipolar disorder. Through the employment of a semi-structured diagnostic interview, it was revealed in both studies that individuals with bipolar scissor subjected to families with a higher expressed emotion displayed greater signs of degeneration compared to those with families demonstrating low expressed emotion. In conclusion. Civilly, Microfilm, Taylor & Low, 2008) believes that there should be emphasis placed on therapeutic involvements considered to increase general communication and relationships within the families of bipolar disorder sufferers, and thus, should be taken into account for future research on social conservation of bipolar disorder. Part B. Observations throughout the film, it becomes apparent Pat’s bipolar disorder teems from becoming exposed to a dysfunctional family environment growing up. For example, his father was obsessive compulsive with a gambling problem.
More so, he has an overbearing protective mother that enables Pat’s behavior. Thus, establishing a causation of poor cognitive processes, this can be understood as learned helplessness. Additionally, a perpetuating factor; he encompasses a weak defensive character, compounding with his poor frustration tolerance and coping mechanisms. In addition, the absence of quality support from friends and family in his development may act as a predisposing factor, whereby Pat associates myself to as coping alone, illustrating a residual lack of social support and attachment.
Although extremely focused on getting his ex-wife Nick back, Pat also worries about being unable to relate to his friends and family, while his sole friend ostracizes him visiting visit him in the hospital. [Time 00:33:50], Where he feels somewhat isolated from them [01:39:48]. Compounding, with his refusal to take medication [01 Along with prolonged stress and persistent feelings of low self-worth, it is these perpetuating factors which serve to maintain Pat’s disorder.
Whilst suffering from bipolar disorder can e extremely disadvantageous to Pats wellbeing, Pat is able to manage his symptoms over time and find positivist within his life. Initially, Pat is focusing primarily on winning his ex-wife back where he strives to win a dance competition, where he utilizes his creativity. This dance competition arguably equips Pat with a necessary skill set in regards building self-efficacy and confidence which is associated as a protective factor against bipolar disorder.